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Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford . It furthers the University s objective of excellence in research scholarship . and education by publishing worldwide Oxford is a registered trade mark of. Oxford University Press in the UK and in certain other countries . Published in India by, Oxford University Press, YMCA Library Building 1 Jai Singh Road New Delhi 110001 India. Oxford University Press 2013, The moral rights of the author s have been asserted . First published in 2013, All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in. a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means without the. prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press or as expressly permitted. by law by licence or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographics. rights organization Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the. above should be sent to the Rights Department Oxford University Press at the. address above , You must not circulate this work in any other form. and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer . ISBN 13 978 0 19 808549 2, ISBN 10 0 19 808549 4, Typeset in Times.
by Trinity Designers Typesetters Chennai, Printed in India by Tara Art Printers P Ltd Noida. Third party website addresses mentioned in this book are provided. by Oxford University Press in good faith and for information only . Oxford University Press disclaims any responsibility for the material contained therein . Dedicated to our revered guru and mentor , Dr T R Seetharam. INDEX 521, About the Authors, N V Raghavendra is Professor and Head Department of Mechanical Engineering the National Institute. of Engineering NIE Mysore He has more than 25 years of teaching and research experience A Ph D. holder from the Indian Institute of Science IISc his doctoral research area was on Acquisition of. Technological Capability and Economic Performance in Clusters done with an objective to understand. the major factors that influence acquisition of technological capability especially in smaller firms and. also recommend policy measures for their growth and sustenance Dr Raghavendra was a member of the. Implementation Committee of the prestigious VTU Bosch Rexroth Centre of Automation Technology . Mysore He has also served as the Special Officer of the VTU Bosch Rexroth Centre Mysore from. September 2007 to December 2008 and Director of the NIE Eicher Centre for Automobile Technology . NIE from January 2011 to January 2013 , L Krishnamurthy is Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering the National Institute. of Engineering Mysore He has more than 25 years of teaching cum research experience Prof . Krishnamurthy holds a doctoral degree from Kuvempu University Karnataka His research area was on. Machinability Studies on Metal Matrix Hybrid Composites He co investigates the research project. titled Characterization of Composite Materials and Application of Nanomaterials for Sustainable. Energy sanctioned by Nano Mission Department of Science and Technology Government of India . Preface, The origin of metrology can be traced to the Industrial Revolution which began in Western.
Europe and the United States in the beginning of the 19th century This period saw a transition. from manual to mechanized production and the setting up of factories to manufacture iron. and textiles There was a paradigm shift from artisan oriented production methods to mass. production An artisan produced an article the same way a storage shelf is built in a closet . by trial and error till the parts fit Mass production called for division of labour and precise. definition of production tasks Tasks became specialized requiring skilled people who worked. on only a portion of the job but completed it quickly and efficiently The workers wages were. determined by a piece rate system They were only paid for the good parts thus it became. necessary to define what a good part was This led to the design of inspection gauges and the. need for an inspector who could decide whether a part was good or not In 1913 Henry Ford . an American idustrialist perfected the assembly line system to produce cars In order to ensure. quality as well as high production rates new methods of inspection and quality control were. initiated which perhaps formed the basis of modern metrology . Engineering metrology deals with the applications of measurement science in manufacturing. processes It provides a means of assessing the suitability of measuring instruments their. calibration and the quality control of manufactured components A product that is not. manufactured according to metrological specifications will have to incur heavy costs to comply. with the specifications later Any compromise in quality creates rapid negative sentiments in. the market and the cost of recovering the original market position would be quite high Today . metrological error has a far greater impact on cost than in the past Hence an organization should. strive towards a zero defect regime in order to survive in a highly competitive market Ensuring. this aspect of manufacturing is the responsibility of a quality control engineer who must be. completely familiar with the basics of measurement standards and systems of measurement . tolerances measuring instruments and their limitations . The science of mechanical measurements has its roots in physics It is an independent. domain of knowledge dealing with the measurement of various physical quantities such as. pressure temperature force and flow ,ABOUT THE BOOK. Engineering Metrology and Measurements is a core subject for mechanical production and. allied disciplines in all the major universities in India Although there are a few good books. available on metrology the coverage of topics on mechanical measurements is either scanty or. superficial necessitating students to refer to different books on mechanical measurements This. book provides a comprehensive coverage of both metrology and mechanical measurements . Divided into three parts the first part of the book comprising Chapters 1 11 begins with a. comprehensive outline of the field of engineering metrology and its importance in mechanical. engineering design and manufacturing The basic concepts of engineering standards limits . fits and tolerances for ensuring interchangeability of machine components are then discussed . vi PREFACE, This is followed by a discussion on metrology of linear and angular measurements Later in. the book comparators followed by the metrology of gears screw threads and surface finish. metrology are discussed The chapter on miscellaneous metrology talks about laser based. instrumentation and coordinate measuring machines The last chapter in this section features. inspection methods and quality control , The second part of the book comprising Chapters 12 16 focuses on mechanical measurements . The coverage is restricted to measurement techniques and systems that are complementary to. engineering metrology The topics covered are the basics of transducers and the measurement. of force torque strain temperature and pressure , The third part of the book comprising Chapter 17 details nanometrology techniques. and instrumentation Nanotechnology has opened a new world of scientific research and. applications India has also joined the bandwagon and today we see a phenomenal investment. in the research and development of this discipline both in the government and private sectors . There is abundant scope for pursuing higher studies both in India and abroad We hope this. section on nanometrology will further stimulate the curiosity of the students and motivate them. to take up higher studies in this new and interesting field . The book is designed to meet the needs of undergraduate students of mechanical engineering. and allied disciplines The contents of this book have been chosen after careful perusal of. the syllabi of the undergraduate B E B Tech and diploma programmes in India The topics. are explained lucidly and are supported by self explanatory illustrations and sketches The. following are a few key features of the book ,KEY FEATURES.
Covers both metrology and mechanical measurements in one volume. Offers guidelines for the proper use and maintenance of important instruments such as. vernier callipers autocollimators slip gauges and pyrometers. Provides simple solved examples numerical exercises in all relevant chapters theoretical. review questions and multiple choice questions with answers at the end of every chapter. Introduces the principles of nanometrology a topic that has emerged from the popular. discipline of nanotechnology in an exclusive chapter highlighting its applications in the. production processes, Includes an appendix containing 20 laboratory experiments with comprehensive procedures . observation templates and model characteristics with select experiments presenting. photographs of the actual instruments to gain a visual understanding of the equipment used. ONLINE RESOURCES, To aid the faculty and students using this book the companion website of this book http . oupinheonline com book raghavendra engineering metrology measurements 9780198085492. provides the following resources , For instructors. A solutions manual for the numerical exercises given in the book. PREFACE vii, A complete chapter wise PowerPoint presentation to aid classroom teaching. For students, Two sets of model question papers to test students understanding of the subject thereby.
preparing them for the end semester examination ,CONTENTS AND COVERAGE. The book is divided into three parts Engineering Metrology Chapters 1 11 Mechanical. Measurements Chapters 12 16 and Nano Impact on Metrology Chapter 17 A chapter wise. scheme of the book is presented here , Chapter 1 deals with the basic principles of engineering metrology It gives an overview of. the subject along with its importance It also talks about general measurement methods of. measurement errors associated with any measurement and the types of errors . Chapter 2 sets the standards of measurement These standards acts as a reference point for the. dimensional measurements , Chapter 3 presents the limits fits and tolerances in design and manufacturing An. understanding of these concepts helps in the interchangeability of manufactured components . Chapter 4 discusses linear measurements that form one of the most important constituents of. metrology The chapter throws light on surface plates and V blocks over which the measurand. is inspected It discusses the scaled vernier and micrometer instruments in detail The chapter. ends with a detailed explanation of slip gauges , Chapter 5 elaborates on angular measurements The fact that not all measurands can be. measured by linear methods stresses the significance of this topic This chapter deals with. devices such as protractors sine bars angle gauges spirit levels and other optical instruments. used for angular measurements , Chapter 6 aids in the comprehension of comparators In several instances a measurement may.
be carried out on the basis of a comparison with the existing standards of measurements This. chapter discusses the instruments that work on this common principle . Chapter 7 explains optical measurements and interferometry Optical measurement provides. a simple accurate and reliable means of carrying out inspection and measurements in the. industry This chapter gives insights into some of the important instruments and techniques. that are widely used Interferometers which use laser as a source are also discussed in detail . Chapter 8 focuses on the metrological inspection of gears and screw threads Gears are the. main elements in a transmission system Misalignment and gear runout will result in vibrations . chatter noise and loss of power Therefore one cannot understate the importance of precise. measurement and inspection techniques for gears Similarly the geometric aspects of screw. threads are quite complex and hence thread gauging is an integral part of a unified thread. gauging system , viii PREFACE, Chapter 9 analyses the metrology of surface finish Two apparently flat contacting surfaces. are assumed to be in perfect contact throughout the area of contact However in reality there. are peaks and valleys between surface contacts Since mechanical engineering is primarily. concerned with machines and moving parts that are designed to precisely fit with each other . surface metrology has become an important topic in engineering metrology . Chapter 10 comprises miscellaneous metrology which details certain measurement principles. and techniques that cannot be classified under any of the aforementioned dimensional. measurements Coordinate measuring machines CMM machine tool test alignment . automated inspection and machine vision form the core of this chapter . Chapter 11 lays emphasis on inspection and quality control Inspection is the scientific. examination of work parts to ensure adherence to dimensional accuracy surface texture . and other related attributes This chapter encompasses the basic functions of inspection and. statistical quality control total quality management TQM and six sigma the customer . centric approaches towards achieving high quality of products. Engineering Metrology and Measurements is a core subject for mechanical production and allied disciplines in all the major universities in India Although there are a few good books available on metrology the coverage of topics on mechanical measurements is either scanty or

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