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Centria University Date Author,of Applied Sciences Dec 2016 Nduka Obiekwe. Degree programme,Business Management,Name of thesis. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE,Instructor Pages. Ann Christine Johnsson 7 29,Supervisor,Ann Christine Johnsson. The aim of this thesis was to find out the effect of employees motivation on organization and the dif. ferent type of motivations It also obtain an understandings on what motivates an employee to work. better for the overall benefit of the organisation the thesis provides also an avenue for organization to. gather information concerning what employees thinks about their job or how employees perceive their. present job, The thesis also analyzed various reward systems and how it can be used by a company also it looks.
into organizational culture and how it influence employee behaviour. Extrinsic intrinsic incentives intangible motivation performance rewards tangible. 1 INTRODUCTION 1,2 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 2,2 1 The concept of. motivation Error Bookmark not,2 2 Herzberg and Maslow 3. 2 2 1 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 5, 2 2 2 The Relationship Between Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation 6. 3 EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE 8,3 1 Performance in Organization 8. 3 2 Job Performance 9,3 3 Measuring Job Performance 9.
4 REWARD SYSTEM FOR EMPLOYEES 12,4 1 Purpose of Reward 13. 4 2 Financial Reward 14,4 3 Nonfinancial Reward 15. 5 CULTURE IN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT 17,5 1 The Concept of Culture 17. 5 2 Understanding Cultural Dimensions 19,5 3 Geert Hofstede Dimensions 19. 5 4 Managing Cultural Differences 22,6 CONCLUSION 23.
Figure 1 Abraham Maslow s Hierarchy of Need 5,Table 1 Herzberg Two Factor Theory 3. REFERENCES 26,1 INTRODUCTION, Motivation has been extensively researched In the mid twentieth century the foremost significant mo. tivational theories came up namely Maslow s hierarchy of needs 1943 Herzberg s two factor theory. 1959 and Vroom s expectancy theory 1964 Those researches centered on motivation in general. and employee motivation more particularly In the preceding years different definitions of motivation. were defined eg Herzberg 1959 defined employee motivation as performing a work related action. because you want to, Normally it is agreed that employee motivation can be distinguished in intrinsic and extrinsic motiva. tion Staw 1976 49 52 Staw indicates that one of the first efforts to make that distinction was in Her. zberg s Two Factor Theory Nevertheless the discourse on intrinsic and extrinsic motivation is more. from latter years e g Amabile 1993 and Deci Ryan 2000 The discourse on how intrinsic and. extrinsic motivation can enhance employee performance Ramlall 2008 128. The relationship among employee motivation and job performance has been studied in the past. Vroom 1964 But high statistical relationship between the two were not instituted Notwithstanding. later on research resolved that employee motivation and job performance are indeed mutually related. This correlation is studied in this thesis and the objective is to render useful information to managers. on how employees performance can be increased by intrinsically or extrinsically motivating them. Diversity at workplace has provided managers with substantial magnitude of problems the big differ. ence between employees in every organization means that there is no best way to deal with such prob. lem What motivates some employee to perform very well may be discouraging to other employee. therefore it poses a big challenge to present day managers In this thesis culture in human resource. management is discussed as well as performance management and different type of reward system. 2 EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION, Many factors like environment capital and human resources influences how organization performs. Though human resources is seen as having the most influence on the performance of organization It is. legitimate thus to debate that an organization needs to motivate its employees in order to accomplish. its stated goals and objectives In this chapter motivation is well explained It is obvious that motiva. tion has been perceived in numerous ways Many researchers have tried to come up with a concise. theory to formulate motivation but all bring in different ideas Research has been conducted about this. subject and many theories were designed which greatly influence organizational behavior For exam. ple Herzberg s theory of motivation 1959 is still used nowadays According to Staw 1976 Herzberg. was one of the first persons who distinguished between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation That distinc. tion has clarified and also helped in motivating employees at workplace Staw 1976 49 52. 2 1 The concept of motivation, Motivation can be specified as a management process which encourage people to work better for the.
overall benefit of the organization by providing them motives which are based on their unfulfilled. needs The matters arising is why managers need to motivate employees Herzberg 1959 Ac. cording to Smith 1994 it is because of the survival of the company Amabile 1993 contributed to. this statement by arguing that it is necessary for managers and leaders of organization to learn to un. derstand and effectively deal with their employee s motivation since motivated employees are the. pillars of successful organization in present and future century She also indicates that unmotivated. employees may probably contribute little effort in their jobs stay away from workplace as much as. possible go out of the organization and make low quality of work When employees are well motivat. ed they help the organization to grow and survive in a fast changing workplaces Lindner 1998 36. Lindner also indicates that the most difficult role of managers is to motivate employee because what. motivates employees changes always Bowen and Radhakrishna 1991 16 22. The term motivation was developed in the early 1880 s prior to that time the term will was used by. well known philosophers as well as notable social theorists when talking motivated human behaviours. Forgas Williams and Laham 2005 86 According to them motivation is believed to be an entity. that compelled one to action Recently many researchers has offered unique definitions of motivation. It has been defined as the psychological process that gives behaviour purpose and direction Kreitner. 1995 168 a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific unmet needs. Buford Bedeian Lindner 1995 31 34 an internal drive to satisfy an unsatisfied need Higgins. It is apparent that managers needs to motivate employees if they want to get the necessary results for. the organization It can also be said that there is an agreement about the facts that motivation is an in. dividual development it is depicted as being deliberate it has several sides and the aim of motivational. theories is to predict behaviours It appears that Herzberg and Maslow theories are still been used to. day because they were among the first researchers at this topic. 2 2 Herzberg and Maslow, Herzberg 1959 introduced a well known motivation theory which is the two Factor Theory he de. scribed in his theory between motivators and hygiene factors He emphasized that the factors can either. be motivators or hygiene factors but can never be both at the same time TABLE 1. Intrinsic motivational factors are challenging work recognition and responsibilities Hygiene motiva. tors are extrinsic motivational factors such as status job security and salary Motivating factors can. when present leads to satisfaction and Hygiene factors can when not present leads to dissatisfaction. but the two factors can never be treated as opposites from each other Saiyadain 2009 158. TABLE 1 Herzberg Two Factors theory Net MBA 2016, Motivators Leading to Satisfaction Hygiene Leading to dissatisfaction. Achievement Company policy,Recognition Supervision. Work itself Relationship with boss,Responsibility Work condition. Advancement Salary,Growth Relationship with peers, The two Factor Theory of Herzberg 1959 is related to Maslow s 1943 theory of motivation.
Maslow in his book outlined his theory of motivation In his need hierarchy Maslow states that there. are at least five set of goals which are called the basic needs. 1 Physiological needs These needs are directly related to survival of individual or species The. se are typically concrete needs such as eating dressing and sleeping The lack of these needs. can cause bodily or make the human not to function up to capacity physiological needs are. thought to be the most important and must be met first. 2 Security needs This type of need is to protect against various threats if a person s security. needs are relatively satisfied their safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior In the. absence of physical safety due to war natural disaster family violence childhood abuse peo. ple may experience post traumatic stress disorder The absence of economic safety due to safe. ty due to economic crises and lack of work opportunities these safety needs will manifest itself. in ways such as preference for job security, 3 Social need of belonging to group It disclose the need of social dimension of the individual. who needs to feel accepted by groups in his family work intimacy friendship and associates. According to Maslow human needs to feel and have the sense of belonging and been accepted. among social groups in life they choose to belong or finds themselves in these group maybe. large or small some large groups may include religion group co workers professional organi. sations sports team or gangs while small groups may include love relationship members of. the family mentor colleagues and confidants, 4 The esteem needs respect and trust Human have a need to feel respected this includes the. need to have self esteem and self respect Esteem presents the typical human desire to be ac. cepted and valued by others People usually involves themselves in a profession or hobby to. gain recognition These activities give the person a sense of recognition or value. 5 Personal development According to Maslow this need aims to get out of condition purely ma. terial to reach fulfillment This level of needs is the desire to accomplish everything that one. can and to become the most that one can be Srivastava 2005 69. In 1943 Maslow argued that human beings have an internal needs compelling them in the direction of. self fulfillment and personal superiority He then came up with a opinion that there are five unique. position of needs and once we to satisfy a need at one position of the hierarchy it will have an influ. ence on our attitude At such stage our attitude starts to decrease we now put more powerful influence. for the need at the next stage up the hierarchy, Firstly individuals are motivated by Psychological needs this psychological needs builds the funda. mental need for survival it may include warmth clothing food and shelter When people are thirsty. and don t have clothing or shelter they are more motivated to accomplish these needs because these. needs turns to be a great influence on their behaviour But then again when individuals have surpluses. in those basic needs psychological needs they tend to move to the second level where it was seen by. Maslow as the higher order of needs The second level is the security needs it is the most important. need to people at this level This is seen and conveyed in the safety of the employee s health and fami. ly The social needs came third When an employee feel secured and safe at work he will then take the. rule and regulations of the organization serious and stick to the guidelines also a good friendship love. and intimacy will be formed Going up the hierarchy is the self esteem needs It is the fourth level of. needs by Maslow and it introduce the recognition to be accepted and valued by others The fifth level. of Maslow needs is the self actualization needs The self actualization was developed into what an in. dividual is to become or what he is competent to become Srivastava 2005 69 Figure 1 demonstrates. Maslow s five hierarchies of needs,Figure 1 Abraham Maslow s hierarchy of need. 2 2 1 Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, Motivation can be classified as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic or internal motivation and.
extrinsic or external motivation The two motivation differs in the source of pressure or pleasure that. boost each of them Amabile 1993 elaborates further by saying the followings. Individuals are intrinsically motivated when they seek enjoyment interest satisfaction of curi. osity self expression or personal challenge in the work. Individuals are extrinsically motivated when they engage in the work in order to obtain some. goal that is apart from the work itself Amabile 1993 185 201. Intrinsic motivation, This type of motivation comes out from an individual pleasure or interest in the task and it does not. involve working on activities for the sake of external rewards it instead necessitates the feeling of in. ner pleasure in the activity itself It can be seen as a force that involves doing activities without exter. nal incentive According to Amabile 1993 individuals are intrinsically motivated when they seek. enjoyment interest satisfaction of curiosity self expression or personal challenge in the work Ama. bile 1993 185 201,Extrinsic motivation, It is the opposite of intrinsic motivation it regards the carrying out of an action in order to achieve an. EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE Instructor Ann Christine Johnsson Pages 7 2 9 Supervisor Ann Christine Johnsson The aim of this thesis was to find out the effect of employees motivation on organization and the dif ferent type of motivations It also obtain an understandings on what motivates an employee to work better for the overall benefit of the organisation the thesis provides also

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