Directory of Cyclotrons used for Radionuclide Production

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The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was. Industrial Applications and Chemistry Section,International Atomic Energy Agency. Wagramer Strasse 5,P O Box 100,A 1400 Vienna Austria. DIRECTORY OF CYCLOTRONS USED FOR,RADIONUCLIDE PRODUCTION IN MEMBER STATES. 2006 UPDATE,IAEA VIENNA 2006,IAEA DCRP 2006,ISBN 92 0 111506 7. Printed by the IAEA in Austria,October 2006, The present directory of cyclotron facilities used for the production of radionuclides in Member.
States is an update of the one compiled by the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA in late. 2001 and published in 2002 This directory was prepared through information collected by. questionnaires that the IAEA sent to known institutions operating cyclotrons for radionuclide. production Technical as well as administrative data supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 were. taken into account, The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least. partially for radionuclide production There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member. States of the IAEA This is an increase of 7 over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory. This can be compared to the 350 or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world. which are involved in some aspects of radionuclide production The increase has been in the number. of cyclotrons in developed countries but even more so in the developing countries The increase in. number during the last four years was driven by several factors i e advent of advances in medical. imaging introduction of compact user friendly medical cyclotron and a recent decision that costs for. O oxygen position emission tomography PET studies in Japan and 18F FDG PET studies in. Germany and the United States of America are eligible for reimbursement by government or health. insurance companies There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the market is in the. commercial distribution of FDG to local hospitals, The IAEA is promoting cyclotron technology as applied to nuclear medicine Requests for. cyclotron technology is steadily increasing many developing Member States are interested in this. technology There is need to stimulate build and maintain consulting capability in interested. developing Member States There are good reasons to believe that the number of cyclotron facilities. dedicated to the production of PET tracers will continue to grow in the near future so the need to. further update the directory will be assessed in due course depending on comments and suggestions. receiving from users of the directory This directory will help decision makers and specialists in. Member States to draft mid and long term strategies regarding the implementation of cyclotron. technology for radioisotope production and their medical applications as well as for selection of the. most suitable alternative, The IAEA wishes to thank D J Schlyer of the Brookhaven National Laboratories USA for his. analysis of the data The IAEA officer responsible for the compilation of the directory was M Haji. Saeid of the Division of Physical and Chemical Sciences. EDITORIAL NOTE, This CD ROM has been prepared from the original material as submitted by contributors Neither the. IAEA nor its Member States assume any responsibility for the information contained on this CD. The use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by the. publisher the IAEA as to the legal status of such countries or territories of their authorities and. institutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries. The mention of names of specific companies or products whether or not indicated as registered does. not imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights nor should it be construed as an endorsement. or recommendation on the part of the IAEA,1 Argentina 7.
2 Australia 11,3 Austria 17,4 Belgium 21,5 Brazil 37. 6 Canada 41,7 China 59,8 Czech Republic 77,9 Denmark 81. 10 Egypt 85,11 Finland 87,12 France 95,13 Germany 107. 14 Hungary 153,15 India 155,16 Indonesia 159,17 Iran Islamic Republic of 161. 18 Israel 163,19 Italy 167,20 Japan 193,21 Kazakhstan 265.
22 Korea Republic of 267,23 Mexico 297,24 Netherlands 299. 25 Norway 319,26 Philippines 321,27 Poland 323,28 Romania 327. 29 Russian Federation 329,30 Saudi Arabia 347,31 Slovakia 349. 32 South Africa 351,33 Spain 353,34 Sweden 363,35 Switzerland 365. 36 Syrian Arab Republic 371,37 Turkey 373,38 United Kingdom 377.
39 United States of America 391, The directory of cyclotrons used for radionuclide production in Member States contains. technical utilization and administrative information supplied to the IAEA as of November 2005 It. was prepared through information collected by questionnaires sent to institutions that either have a. cyclotron or were identified to be in the process of installing a cyclotron. Included in the directory are a significant fraction of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at. least in part for radionuclide production If replies were not received from institutions it was assumed. that the cyclotron is still being used for similar tasks as it was at the time of the last survey Some. institutions reported that older cyclotrons had been shut down and replaced with newer cyclotrons The. questionnaire was in general not completed by institutions that have cyclotrons dedicated to physics. and or material science activities Certain of the institutions constructing superconducting cyclotrons. for medical and nuclear physics applications responded even though they are not yet involved in. radionuclide production initiatives, The directory is organized alphabetically by Member States and by institutes There are. individual entries for each cyclotron even for institutions having more than one cyclotron The names. title position of the persons listed in position in the entries for individual countries were taken directly. from the answers in the questionnaires, There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA This is an. increase of 7 over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory This can be compared to the 350. or so cyclotrons believed to be presently operating in the world which are involved in some aspects of. radionuclide production The increase has been in the number of cyclotrons in developed countries but. even more so in the developing countries Large concentrations of cyclotrons for radionuclide. production are located in the United States of America Japan and Germany The largest number of. cyclotrons for a single country is in the United States of America However taken collectively there. are more cyclotrons located in the European Union countries that are used for medical radionuclide. production, The number of institutions which distribute radiopharmaceuticals and 18F FDG in particular is. significant and growing In this sample 75 of the cyclotrons are being used to produce FDG either. for internal use or for distribution This is certainly an underestimate as the commercial suppliers are. under represented in this survey, The expansion in the number of cyclotrons during the last 10 years has been driven by the.
advent of advances in medical imaging instrumentation PET SPECT and more recently PET CT. introduction of user friendly compact medical cyclotrons from several companies that manufacture. cyclotrons and recent decisions that some PET radiopharmaceuticals are eligible for reimbursement. by government or insurance companies There is no doubt that the fastest growing segment of the. market is in the commercial distribution of 18F FDG to local hospitals Many centers have begun. distributing FDG and at present at least 36 of the centers producing FDG are distributing it Again. this is a lower limit rather than an accurate assessment The satellite approach is cost effective. because it is not necessary for every medical imaging centre to own a cyclotron as a source of short. lived radiopharmaceuticals 18F FDG is gaining widespread clinical acceptance for a variety of disease. The number of types of cyclotrons available commercially is quite large and growing The. energies range from a few MeV for only PET isotope production to a few hundreds MeV for proton. therapy or production of radioisotopes requiring these high energies The beam currents range upwards. from 40 to over 1 mA The characteristics of the machines available for commercial acquisition are. shown in Table I,TABLE I CHARACTERISTICS OF COMMERCIAL CYCLOTRONS. Company Model Description Oper Plan,CTI Inc RDS 111 11 MeV H 60 A 44 10. RDS 112 11 MeV H 60 A 30,Ebco Technologies TR 14 11 14 MeV H 100 A 2. TR 19 14 19 MeV H 160 A 2,TR 19 9 19 MeV H 9 MeV D 160 A 1 3. TR30 30 MeV H 100 A 2,TR30 15 30 MeV H 15 MeV D 160 A 1.
D V Efremov Institute MGC 20 18 MeV H 10 MeV D 160 A 4 2. General Electric MiniTrace 9 6 MeV H 50 A 2,PETrace 16 5 MeV H 8 6 MeV D 80 A 16. Ion Beam Applications Cyclone 3 3 8 MeV D 60 A 2,Cyclone 10 5 10 MeV H 5 MeV D 60 A 3. Cyclone 18 9 18 MeV H 9 MeV D 80 A 15 5,Cyclone 18 18 MeV H 80 A 1. Cyclone 30 30 MeV H 15 MeV D 400 A 16 2,Cyclone 235 240 MeV H 1. Japan Steel Works BC168 16 MeV H 8 MeV D 50 A 2,BC1710 17 MeV H 10 MeV D 60 A 7.
BC2010N 20 MeV H 10 MeV D 60 A 2,BC2211 22 MeV H 11 MeV D 60 A 1. BC3015 30 MeV H 15 MeV D 60 A 1,Oxford Instrument Co OSCAR 12 12 MeV H 60 A 5. Scanditronix Medical AB MC17 17 2 MeV H 8 3 MeV D 60 A 13. 12 MeV 3He 16 5 4He 60 A,MC30 30 MeV H 15 MeV D 60 A. MC32NI 15 32 MeV H 8 16 MeV D 60 A 3,11 23 MeV 3He 15 31 4He 60 A. MC40 10 40 MeV H 5 20 MeV D 60 A 6,13 53 MeV 3He 10 40 4He 60 A.
MC50 18 52 MeV H 9 25 MeV D 60 A 1,24 67 MeV 3He 18 50 4He 60 A. MC60 50 MeV H 60 A 1,K130 6 90 MeV H 10 65 MeV D 60 A. 16 173 MeV 3He 20 130 4He, Sumitomo Heavy Industries CYPRIS 325 16 MeV H 8 MeV D 60 A 1. CYPRIS 370 16 MeV H 10 MeV D 60 A 4,HM 18 18 MeV H 10 MeV D 60 A 7. HM 12 12 MeV H 6 MeV D 60 A 1,480 AVF 30 MeV H 60 A 1.
AVF 680 40 MeV H 60 A 1,AVF 715 50 MeV H 60 A,AVF 750 70 MeV H 60 A 1. AVF 930 90 MeV H 60 A 2,AVF 1000 80 MeV H 60 A,Ring Cyclotron 400 400 MeV H K 400 60 A 1. Ring Cyclotron 540 240 MeV H K 540 60 A 1,C235 240 MeV H 60 A 1. KIRAMS Kirams 13 13 MeV H 100 A 3, Of the respondents to the survey the number of existing cyclotrons broken down by energy. level is given in Fig 1,Number of Cyclotrons, 10 MeV 10 20 MeV 20 30 MeV 30 40 MeV 40 100 MeV 100 MeV.
Energy Distribution, FIG 1 Distribution of proton energies as reported by respondents to the IAEA survey. The preponderance of low energy cyclotrons can be clearly seen from the distribution which is. very similar to the distribution from the 2002 edition of the directory Another interesting aspect is the. distribution of time being devoted to radioisotope production This distribution is shown in Figure 2. Number of Instutions, 5 hrs 5 15 hrs 15 25 hrs 25 35 hrs 35 100 hrs 100 hrs. Radioisotope Production Hours per week, FIG 2 Distribution of hours of radioisotope production from the respondents to the IAEA survey. One interesting aspect of this distribution is that many institutions are spending a very small. fraction of the available time in radioisotope production The cyclotron is idle for a significant fraction. of the week This implies that the cyclotron is not the slow step in clinical applications and that a. single cyclotron can support several PET or PET CT cameras. The other interesting trend is in the compounds that are being synthesized with these. radioisotopes A graph of the number of centres that responded synthesizing these compounds is given. Number of Instutions,FDG FLT FDOPA Methonine Ammonia Water. FIG 3 Number of reporting institutions that use a particular compound. This figure clearly shows that 18F FDG is the most widely produced compound at cyclotron. facilities world wide It is now used in many applications in diagnostic nuclear medicine. TABLE II EXPECTED PRODUCTION YIELDS MCI OF SYNTHETIC PRECURSORS OF PET. RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS WITH SELECTED PROTON AND DEUTERON ENERGIES AND. IRRADIATION AT 20 TO 35 A AS RECOMMENDED BY THE MANUFACTURER OF VARIOUS. CYCLOTRONS, Precursor 12 MeV p only 10 MeV p 5 MeV d 18 MeV p 9 MeV d.
CO2 1500 1000 2800,CO 1000 350 1400,CO 1250 350 700. CO 750 250 1200,NH3 200 100 450,O2 1000 150 min 1200. OC 500 75 min 700,OCO 500 150 min 700,OH2 750 200 1000. F 700 500 800, One of the areas of current research is on the development of very high current targets that can. produce several curies of fluorine 18 for synthesis of 18F FDG This type of target is advantageous for. production facilities where distribution of 18F FDG is being carried out on a routine basis. 1 ARGENTINA,2005 COUNTRY ARGENTINA ARG 1, 1 INSTITUTE Comisi n Nacional de Energia At mica CNEA.
Avenida del Libertador 8250,1429 Buenos Aires,TELEPHONE NO 54 11 4379 8250. E MAIL ADDRESS rocco cae cnea gov ar,FAX NO 54 11 4480 0615. 2 PERSON IN CHARGE Mr Carmelo Rocco,POSITION Head of the Facility. OTHER SENIOR STAFF Mr Ortega Daniel in charge of Operation and Maintenance. NAME POSITION Mr Guevara Ernesto in charge of Radiochemistry. 3 TYPE OF Isochronous YEAR OF,CYCLOTRON negative ion I INSTALLATION 1994. The directory is considered to include most of the cyclotrons of the world that are used at least partially for radionuclide production There are 262 entries for cyclotrons operating in 39 Member States of the IAEA This is an increase of 7 over the 246 reported in the 2002 cyclotron directory

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