Comprehensive Sexuality Education

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Index, 1 Introduction 3, 1 1 What is meant by sexuality education 3. 2, 1 2 Several approaches to sexuality education 3. 1 2 1 Comprehensive sexuality education 3, 1 2 2 Other approaches to sexuality education 4. 1 3 Settings for CSE 5, 1 4 Sexuality education in a historical view 6. 1 5 Policy on CSE 6, 2 Principles and goals of CSE 9.
2 1 Principles of CSE 9, 2 2 Main objectives goals or outcomes of CSE 10. 2 3 Relevant topics in CSE 10, 2 4 Rights based approach 11. 3 Quality implementation of CSE 13, 3 1 Legal basis and level of implementation 13. 3 2 Studies on impact of CSE 13, 3 3 Evidence based conditions for quality of CSE 14. 3 3 1 Programme fidelity 15, 3 3 2 The content and approach 16.
3 3 3 The educator 17, 3 3 4 The learner 18,Rutgers 2018. Comprehensive Sexuality Education, 3 3 5 The learning environment 19. 3 4 Guidance for CSE programming 21, 4 Conclusions and challenges for the future 25. 5 References 27, 1 Introduction, In this white paper we give an overview of the current state of sexuality education with a focus on. Europe and developing countries We start in chapter 1 with a short introduction on the definition of. 3, sexuality and sexuality education and will address several views on and approaches to sexuality.
education worldwide and the current international policy We mainly focus on comprehensive. sexuality education CSE in schools although we realise that the scope of sexuality education is. broader for example community based interventions online information education by youth. workers etc In chapter 2 we start with a short history of CSE Subsequently we present the core. objectives the main content and will describe the main settings and working within multicomponent. approaches In chapter 3 we focus on the quality evaluation and implementation process of CSE and. effectiveness Finally in chapter 4 we end with some conclusions and challenges for the future . 1 1 What is meant by sexuality education , During the process of growing up children and adolescents gradually acquire knowledge values . attitudes and skills related to the human body intimate relationships and sexuality often referred to. as sexual development Sexuality education aims to support and protect children and young people. in their sexual development for them to benefit from global innovations while being critical towards. untrue misleading online information and capable of handling contradicting messages on sexuality. and relationships , What is understood as sexuality education differs across countries and programmes Very often . sexuality education is interpreted through a narrow understanding and strongly focussed on sexual. Rutgers 2018, Comprehensive Sexuality Education, contacts In some programmes they use the term sex education which focuses primarily on the. biological characteristics and subjects such as sexual anatomy reproduction birth control and. disease prevention WHO regional Office for Europe BZgA and UNESCO both have formulated. broader definitions for sexuality education WHO BZGA 2010 UNESCO 2018 . Ideas on the age at which sexuality education should start are also very different Most of the. countries start with sexuality education from 12 14 year of age or older In some Western European. countries like the Netherlands Denmark Norway Germany and Belgium they start at a younger age . from 4 or 5 years of age onwards In some countries the term relationships and sexuality education . is preferred , Rutgers interpretation of sexuality education is based on among others the definitions by the WHO. and UNESCO Rutgers sees sexuality education as a lifelong learning process about the cognitive . emotional social interactive and physical aspects of sexuality It gradually equips and empowers. children and young people by acquiring information and forming positive beliefs values and attitudes. about identity relationships and intimacy and by supporting them with skills to be able to. communicate and make their own decisions in the area of sexuality sexual health and wellbeing . Sexuality education helps young people to understand and enjoy their sexuality have safe mutual . caring and fulfilling relationships and take responsibility for their own and other people s sexual. health and wellbeing ,1 2 Several approaches to sexuality education.
1 2 1 Comprehensive sexuality education, Rutgers sexuality education programmes and many others around the world choose a. comprehensive 1 approach in which sexuality is put in a wider perspective of personal growth . development and building up mutually consensual sexual contacts and relationships . 1 Instead of comprehensive the term holistic has been used also . Comprehensive Sexuality Education CSE is characterised by a positive approach to sexuality 2 that. accepts sexual feelings desire and pleasure as essential components of young people s sexuality. IPPF 2017 WHO BZgA 2010 CSE is strongly linked with empowerment gender equality and a. rights based approach and with putting children and young people at the centre of the education . 4 CSE is aimed at enhancing well being and therefore strives to achieve ideal experiences rather than. solely working to prevent negative experiences CSE acknowledges and tackles the various concerns. and risks associated with sexuality but without reinforcing fear shame or taboo of young people s. sexuality and gender inequality IPPF 2011 , CSE addresses not only physical emotional social and cultural aspects but it also includes aspects. like friendship feelings of safety intimacy gender security pleasure and attraction Comprehensive. sexuality education is not value free it promotes values such as gender equality dignity respect for. others awareness of sexual and reproductive rights and freedom from discrimination exclusion and. sexual violence IPPF 2017 WHO BZgA 2010 , CSE is grounded in young people s right to be informed Based on the United Nations Convention on. the Rights of the Child UN 1989 IPPF 2016a sexual rights have to be seen as human rights related. to sexuality which encompasses the right for everybody to be informed and to have universal access. to comprehensive sexuality education IPPF 2008 All people are born as sexual beings 3 and have. to develop their own sexual potential and identity Comprehensive Sexuality Education helps to. prepare children and young people for building and maintaining satisfactory and consensual sexual . relationships now and in the future CSE should therefore start long before young people become. sexually active CSE starts often at a young age taking in account the needs and developmental. phases in a live time approach In this document we will only focus on CSE during childhood and. adolescence ,Rutgers 2018,Comprehensive Sexuality Education. 1 2 2 Other approaches to sexuality education, In many societies expression of sexual feelings or sexual activities are not allowed or even forbidden.
before marriage due to religious and cultural reasons Therefore comprehensive sexuality education. for unmarried young people is seen as not necessary or is forbidden even In those societies . sexuality education is often based on an abstinence only approach that aims primarily or exclusively. at abstaining from sexual intercourse before marriage The focus in these programs is particularly on. self discipline and restraint to abstain from all sexual activities This is a strongly normative. approach in which sexuality among youth adolescents is not accepted or tolerated and should be. repressed Rutgers is very critical of these approaches First they neglect the realities of adolescent. lives Secondly abstinence only programs are shown to not be effective and even harmful to young. people who are already sexually active who are LGBTQ or have experienced sexual abuse Kirby . 2007 Underhill et al 2007 UNESCO 2009 Fonner et al 2014 Santelli et al 2017 SAHM 2017 . Another category of sexuality education programmes uses a risk prevention approach aimed. particularly at problem solving or disease prevention These programmes strongly focus on. promoting contraception use and safe sex practices in order to prevent sti hiv and unintended. pregnancies This approach uses a strong negative approach to sexuality emphasising only the. risks They find their roots in the fact that sexuality has long been perceived as a threat to people s. health In the 1980 s after the sexual revolution countries were confronted with a high rate of STIs. and unintended pregnancies Therefore sexuality education fulfilled the highly needed function of. sexual health promotion and was primarily aimed at preventing sexual diseases . Since Rutgers adheres to the comprehensive approach the rest of this paper focusses on CSE . 2 A sex positive approach in CSE recognizes that all people are sexual beings with sexual rights regardless of their age . gender religion sexual orientation HIV status or dis ability Sex positivity is an attitude that celebrates sexuality as an. enhancing part of life that brings happiness energy and celebration IPPF 2011 . 3 Being born a sexual being refers to the perception that sexual development starts from birth or even conception and. that every individual has its sexuality right from the starts Being a sexual being does not equal being sexually active . also individuals who have never been sexually active are sexual beings . 1 3 Settings for CSE, Comprehensive Sexuality Education is defined as a structured curriculum based education It can be. provided in formal settings and non formal settings IPPF 2017 Formal CSE occurs in an education. or training institution and provides structure in terms of learning objectives learning time support 5. and delivery which can but doesn t have to lead to a recognized qualification In school this can be. implemented as part of school curriculum or other activities within the school timetable Out of . school examples are courses provided by institutions health services social service agencies NGOs . juvenile detention agencies work preparedness programmes employers etc Formalized in school. CSE is well placed to reach a majority of the target group WHO 2010 UNFPA 2015 UNESCO 2018 . There is a growing emphasis that young people need formal sexuality education to complement the. informal sexuality education at home or informal learning from peers By learning about age. appropriate topics related to sexuality together with their peers in a structured and safe environment . children and young people gain specific knowledge attitudes and skills they most often not gain at. home , Non formal CSE is an extra curricular educational group activity implemented in a voluntary learning. environment It is structured in terms of learning objectives and time support In school this can. occur in school clubs during special class periods or after school time etc In the out of school. settings these forms of CSE occur through community based clubs sport clubs NGO youth groups . churches or religious settings community meeting points hairdressing salons and taxi drivers etc . Non formal CSE programmes should not be underestimated as they can complement an existing in . school curriculum and reach the out of school children and youth who are particularly vulnerable to. exclusion misinformation coercion and exploitation UNESCO 2018 However to narrow the scope. of this white paper we mainly focus on CSE in formal in school settings . Rutgers 2018, Comprehensive Sexuality Education, By definition CSE rules out most education provided in family setting or individual learning through. books magazines or online media such as discussion platforms education games and websites . These forms of information gathering and learning opportunities are dependent on individual actions . It is therefore more difficult to structure and thus not included in the CSE definition However one. cannot overestimate the importance of the individual supportive role by parents caretakers They. can show trust and maintain a mutually respectful dialogue with their children in a safe environment . A warm and supportive parenting climate at home can contribute to healthy choices at a later stage. De Graaf 2012 That is why it is important that parents gain the necessary knowledge and skills to. adequately accompany their children during their sexual development into adulthood and why CSE. programmes should always involve parents caretakers During life time young people interact also. with partners peers and media in an online world Young people learn from and intersect with. different sources They explore and experiment with relationships and sexualised contacts and learn. from these experiences They are actor themselves in shaping the process of meaning and will act. and reflect on it in an interactive and dynamic way The online world provides another increasingly. important channel for young people for their development of knowledge attitudes and skills. regarding sexuality that can form a very relevant complement to CSE In 2017 the IDS Bulletin. dedicated an issue to digital and online sexuality education providing a range of articles from around. the globe on this topic In the introduction the editors argue that there is both need and opportunity. to create new types of digital sex education environments that are realistic emotionally attuned non . 1 2 1 Comprehensive sexuality education 3 1 2 2 Other approaches to sexuality education 4 1 3 Settings for CSE 5 1 4 Sexuality education in a historical view 6 1 5 Policy on CSE 6 2 Principles and goals of CSE 9 2 1 Principles of CSE 9 2 2 Main objectives goals or outcomes of CSE 10 2 3 Relevant topics in CSE 10 2 4 Rights based approach 11 3

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