Compendium of Financing of Higher Education

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Compendium on financing,of higher education,Final report of a project named Financing the. Students Future This publication is a part of the Financing the. Students Future project funded with support, Brussels January 2013 from the European Commission. by the European Students Union ESU,Project coordination and editing. George Konstantinos Charonis Brikena,Xhomaqi Rok Primo i. This publication reflects the views only of the,Authors author and the Commission cannot be held.
Bethan Payne George Konstantinos Cha responsible for any use which may be made of. ronis Hanna Stella Haaristo Moritz Maurer the information contained therein. Florian Kaiser Rahel Siegrist Debbie McVit,ty Angelika Gruber Nik Heerens Brikena. Xhomaqi Tina N tzl Meeli Semjonov Rok,Proofreading. Aengus Maol in and Christina Linza,Image Credits,Cover pp 1 56 83 91 97 133 by ESU. pp 9 14 29 158 166 by sxc hu,Production,Linus Rowedda isbn 978 94 9125613 4. Table of Content,1 Foreword 1,2 Introduction Why do we have this publication 3.
Part 1 Short overview of Higher Education Funding Systems across Europe 6. 1 Introduction 7,2 Overview 8, 3 Selected indicators of funding systems for European countries 11. Part 2 Comparative analysis of funding systems 16, 1 Introduction Mapping how higher education is financed process. and practice 17, 2 Are countries using cost sharing to cover increasing higher educational. 3 Do higher education systems that have higher private financing level. also have higher public student support level 38, 4 Is the students public support per month higher than students private. contribution to HEIs per month 46, 5 Do levels of public investment correlate between levels of participation 51.
Part 3 Articles on Financing on Higher Education 62. 1 No data no social dimension 64, 2 Power policy and perception national students unions commentary on. national higher education finance policy 84,3 Following the Commodification Daemon 98. 4 Why invest in Higher Education 118, Part 4 Future Funding Scenarios of Higher Education 126. 1 Introduction to HE financing scenarios 127, 2 Scenario I Higher Education as a private good under private. responsibility 134, 3 Scenario II Higher Education as a public good under public.
responsibility 141, 4 Scenario III Mixed public and private investment in higher education 146. Annex 1 160,Part 5 Conclusions 162,1 Foreword, Today nobody dares to doubt the value of higher educa. tion in our societies However the question whether it is a. financial priority for governments in times of an econom. ic downturn remains under much of heat The European. Union has increased its focus on higher education as one. of the top priorities for the next decade of European de. velopment though it has not yet been able to present a sat. isfactory solution to the ailments of educational financ. ing in Europe In the meantime on the ground the first. ten years of our century have seen the amount of funding Karina Ufert. per student decrease in many countries often for the first Chairperson esu 2012 13. time in decades, The question how to do more with less rose in the context of higher education financ. ing forcing policy makers to rethink financing strategies with more pressure than ever. Since the economic crisis hit in 2009 the use of public financing in education has been. under constant scrutiny by both governments and institutions but most changes in. financing have come only with a delay in 2010 when governmental measures affected. the access to higher education in nearly every European country. It should be noted that the current status of financing of higher education is extremely. different across the continent hence a valid comparison is difficult to conduct How. ever statistics show that the failure rate at the end of the first year of studies is over 50. per cent which is mainly associated with high study costs for students in certain coun. tries This is an issue of serious concerns While there is a strong tendency to stress. the inefficiency of higher education institutions expansion of student numbers and. growing needs of the societies might be used as an incentive to increase the private. spending on higher education at the expense of public funding the global trends. quite often present a somewhat different approach Be it the economic downturn be. it the societal situation be it the political belief of the governors in most countries the. value of higher education as a national priority for welfare has decreased. In the context of the current political climate where austerity is a mainstream policy. the financing of higher education is surely the key policy discussion in many coun. tries but increasingly also on the European level Our project Financing the Students. Future is thus well timed since the fight for increasing public investment into higher. education must intensify right now, Final report of Financing the Students Future project 1. For this we have designed our project to deliver key policy messages and argumenta. tion for the national unions to use in national discussions But moreover we would. want you to be actively part of shaping the message about future ideals for funding. higher education in this fastly paced world Perception of missions of higher educa. tion is increasingly mixed and if our vision of a public education is to prevail one. needs to be well prepared with the homework done And that is precisely one of the. aims of this project, It is clear that the European dimension in the financing debate is only now emerging.
since there is some understanding that the Bologna Process cannot be implemented. without increased convergence also in funding policies We see tensions in promot. ing mobility leading to an educational quasi market where public budgets come in. creasingly under pressure and governments actually adopt policies that are less open. minded to international openness We must thus promote alternative models that can. serve our ideals,2 Compendium on financing of higher education. 2 Introduction Why do we have,this publication, Higher education plays a vital role in society and the quality accessibility and form of. higher education is highly dependent on financing The type of society we strive for. should be reflected in the way we finance higher education The importance of higher. education has recently been addressed in the context of building a knowledge society. in Europe Both the EU 2020 strategy and the Leuven Louvain la Neuve Commu. niqu confirmed the public responsibility and the need for investment in the higher. education sector as solution to the economic crisis Financing of higher education is. conceived to be of central importance for the future creation and dissemination of. knowledge and research, Therefore the financing of higher education is a topic that has been always at the core. of the work of student organisations even more so in the times of the economic and. financial crisis This is why the European Students Union decided in 2009 to apply for. a grant for a project aimed at increasing the knowledge of the effects of financing sys. tems in Europe on students and enhance the capacity of its member national unions of. students with regard to active involvement on higher education funding reforms. esu has been conducting the project together with three national unions of students. that have been a part of the project management and research team and have contrib. uted to both this publication and other deliverables in this project The partner unions. e l Eesti li pilaskondade Liit Estonia, h Die sterreichische Hochsch lerInnenschaft Austria. nus uk National Union of Students UK, The last partner in the project was the his Institute for higher education research his.
hf which was in charge of quality assurance during the project lifecycle of FinSt and. has reviewed and provided feedback on all products of the project 1. 1 HIS Institute for higher education research HIS HF was in charge of quality assurance. during the project lifecycle of FinSt It was involved in project discussions within the research. team and the Advisory Board It has reviewed and provided feedback on all products of the. project In this role it was not responsible for the final analysis of the topic areas and the ensu. ing conclusions and recommendations Therefore the published results do not reflect the qual. Final report of Financing the Students Future project 3. It must be stated that the compendium does not present the policy of either esu or our. members national unions of students but rather gives an insight of what we thought. were the issues to address and what we think needs to be researched further. The Compendium is the culmination of the research process carried out during the. project the rationale being that it neatly brings together the various different research. components The project began with the formulation of a series of hypotheses with. data gathered in order to test them Certain topics that were of particular interest to. the research team were then investigated in more depth through research articles. With this general overview of the situation regarding student and higher education. funding across Europe predictions on what the future of funding might hold for stu. dents higher education institutions as well as the wider society were presented in the. form of scenarios, While the research team strived to ensure robustness and impartiality it should be. noted that it provides a student perspective on higher education funding with the aim. of building the capacity of national unions of students and student representatives to. understand the present trends and envision potential future developments. Primarily this compendium is meant to be a tool for students and student representa. tives when they are discussing the funding of higher education It does not give final. answers and it does not offer easy solutions As we have observed because of the dif. ferences in national contexts and because of the complexity of the matter easy fixes of. this issue or simple answers to the questions about funding are not possible. This is the final publication in the project although this topic is of course still on the. agenda of the students unions in Europe and globally maybe even more than when the. project started in 2010 We will keep updating the knowledge base on our website and. we also invite the readers to take a look there on what the developments are after this. compendium was published,What is in the compendium. The compendium begins with a short overview of higher education funding systems. which should give the reader a basic picture about the current situation in Europe. based on some selected indicators from the FinSt mapping process. The second part presents a series of hypotheses that we have set to analyse the differ. ences among funding systems and their effects on the student population It tries to. shed a light on how the funding of higher education affects students and looks into. ified opinion of its research team,4 Compendium on financing of higher education. possible correlations between the funding systems and the number of students The. research team chose four hypotheses covering some selected themes which the au. thors have tried to test with the data available, The third part consists of several articles on issues that are related to the overall topic. of financing of Higher education and are giving various insights into the matter The. first article deals with the relation between social dimension and funding of higher. education in which the authors tried to analyse the correlation between the two Al. though various international projects and organisations are already making valuable. progress in collecting data at the European level trying to work out the possible indi. cators for measuring the social dimension and collecting the data at the international. level the researchers observed that quality data is still lacking and that no general. agreement or benchmarks have been set on how to evaluate the development of the. social dimension The second article analyses the policies of esu s member unions of. students that answered our survey and examines their perceptions about elements of. the policy model in relation to the financing of higher education and their opinions of. their national financing policy for higher education The third article looks into the. commodification of higher education It explains the concept of commodification. and examines the appearance of this trend in the last years The last article in this sec. tion gives some reasons for why it is important to invest in higher education from the. point of view of one of our former colleagues in esu As the author himself says there. are many different ways to look at this question but it can give the reader some ideas. and perspectives on how to analyse the contributions of higher education to individu. als and society, The last part tries to formulate some overall conclusions from the research and policy.
process we have gone through In sum the Compendium should give the reader a fair. ly adequate picture of the most important issues in connection with higher education. financing from a student perspective and we hope it will help to encourage a deeper. discussion about funding that will encompass views of different stakeholders and try. Since the economic crisis hit in 2009 the use of public financing in education has been under constant scrutiny by both governments and institutions but most changes in financing have come only with a delay in 2010 when governmental measures affected the access to higher education in nearly every European country It should be noted that the current status of financing of higher education is

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