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School of Distance Education,UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT. SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION,First Semester,B A B Sc B Com B B A. Common Course in English,2012 Admission,COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH. Prepared by,Dr C K Ahammed,M A M Phil Adib i Fazil Ph D. Associate Professor, Centre For Advanced Studies And Research In English.
Farook College Calicut 673632,Scrutinized by,Dr M A Sajitha M A B Ed Ph D. Assistant Professor, Centre for Advanced Studies and Research in English. Farook College Calicut 673632,Layout Settings,Computer Section SDE. Communication Skills in English Page 2,School of Distance Education. UNIT I BASICS OF PHONETICS 05 22,UNIT II ENGLISH LANGUAGE 23 127.
UNIT III VOCABULARY 128 146,UNIT IV COMMUNICATION SKILLS 147 171. Communication Skills in English Page 3,School of Distance Education. Communication Skills in English Page 4,School of Distance Education. BASICS OF PHONETICS,Objectives,This module will help. a To understand the basics of Phonetics, b To familiarise the students with the sounds and symbols of English.
c To identify the various reasons for incorrect pronunciation. d To understand the Syllable Word stress and Intonation. e To help students learn to pronounce vowels diphthongs and consonant sounds properly. f To familiarize the students with transcription strong forms and weak forms of words. Introduction, The international language English is a window to the outside world As a global language. it has a unique status English has no one to one correspondence between the letters of the. alphabets and the sounds they represent For example the letter i is pronounced differently in. ink and ice The letter K in keep and C in cat is pronounced alike In English one letter. of the alphabet stands for more than one sound Thus there is no one to one relationship between. spelling and pronunciation, It is a fact that some speakers of English attract us with their good command of language. with correct pronunciation English is a foreign language and we are not the native speakers of. English In India it is a second language and so there exists a serious problem with regard to the. correct pronunciation of the English words Since there are varieties of English spoken in. different parts of the world we often come across incorrect pronunciation and mispronunciations. Some of the reasons for incorrect pronunciation are given below. 1 In countries where English is the native or first language the children get enough exposure. to English They learn to respond to sounds and tones which their elders habitually use. while talking to them Later they imitate and learn to speak in the mother tongue accent. 2 In countries like India where English is a second or foreign language children listen to. wrong sounds and tones spoken by their teachers or grownups Thus they tend to pick up. faulty pronunciation This happens mainly due to their lack of sufficient exposure to the. right variety of the language, 3 Very often we tend to speak English as we speak our mother tongue Thus due to the. influence or interference of our mother tongue we make a number of mistakes. The Phonetic Alphabet, The twenty six letters of English alphabet are used for writing English There are. differences between the writing and pronunciation of English So we need more alphabets to. represent all the speech sounds in English The distinctive sound units that help to pronounce are. the phonemes Phoneme is the minimal sound unit There are 44 phonemes in English The study. of phonemes is known as phonology The 44 sound units in English contain 44 symbols These. symbols are classified as given below,Communication Skills in English Page 5.
School of Distance Education,Total Sounds 44,Consonants 24 Vowels 20. Pure Vowel 12 Diphthongs 8,IPA International Phonetic Alphabet. These are the alphabets accepted by the International phonetic Association to represent all the. sounds that exist in all the languages of the world These alphabets are based on the Roman. Received Pronunciation RP, Since English is a world language it is spoken in every parts of the world In some. countries like U K U S A Canada and Australia English is the native or first language But in. countries like China Pakistan India etc English is the second language or non native language As. there are variations in accent tones and pronunciation it is essential for us to follow a standard. variety of English that is received or accepted by all people in the world Such a native regional. variety with an accepted accent that has gained a social prestige and status is known as the. Received Pronunciation RP of English It is the pronunciation of the people of South East. England and is used by all educated English speakers all over the world. Misconception about sounds, There are 26 letters in English and so most of us believe that there are only 26 sounds in. English Because of this misconception most of the Indian students fail to get acquainted with the. right pronunciation and accent Actually though there are 26 letters there are 44 different sounds. in English An alphabet is different from the sound Look at the following words. 1 cat 2 keen 3 occasion 4 Chemistry, in these words c k cc and ch have k sound Sometimes same alphabets may have different.
1 Chemist Ch give k sound,2 Character,4 Chess Ch give t sound. Transcription, To indicate standard sounds in English there are some standard symbols These symbols. that are accepted by the educated class of people are known as IPA International Phonetic. Alphabet Using standard symbols for standard sounds is known as Transcription There are two. types of transcriptions 1 Broad Transcription and 2 Narrow Transcription or phonetic and. phonemic transcription,Communication Skills in English Page 6. School of Distance Education, Vowels are pronounced with an open tract and so there is no formation of air pressure at any point. above the glottis A vowel is a sustainable vocal sound made without audible stopping of the. breath or friction in its passage out through the mouth A vowel sound the quality of which does. not changes over the duration of the vowel is called a pure vowel There are 12 pure vowel sounds. in English which are given below with examples,PURE VOWELS.
1 as in sit s t,2 i as in beat bi t,3 e as in bet beg. 4 as in sat s t,5 as in farm f m,6 as in got got,7 as in all l. 8 as in put p t,9 u as in fool fu l,10 as in but b t. 11 as in bird b d,12 as in ago g, Vowel sounds may appear in the initial medial or final position Examples are given below. Sound Position Examples,i Initial Eat each,Medial Piece thief seed dream.
Final See pea key,i or I Initial It in ink,Medial Silk thick slip hit city. Final Duty beauty lonely quickly,e Initial Empire enter exist. Medial Bed dead head wet red,Final Doesn t occur in the final position. Initial Actor axe apple,Medial Bank man sad mango,Final Doesn t occur in the final position. Initial Utter uplift understand,Medial Bus dull dust gun munch.
Final Doesn t occur in the final position,Communication Skills in English Page 7. School of Distance Education,Initial Aunt art answer. Medial Car hard farm march fast,Final Car bar jar,Initial Office oxygen. Medial Hot bottle dog lock,Final Doesn t occur in the final position. Initial All awkward ought,Medial Ball call morning.
Final Saw raw claw,Initial Doesn t occur in the initial position. Medial Book cook look wood,Final Doesn t occur in the final position. u Initial Doesn t occur in the initial position,Medial Rule groove suit stupid. Final New shoe two,or 3 Initial Early earn,Medial Third murder suffer nurse dirt. Final Doesn t occur in the final position,Initial About effort ago allow.
Medial Sentence condition factory,Final Motor colour doctor beggar. Diphthongs, These sounds indicate vowel quality beginning in one vowel sound and later gliding into. another vowel So they are gliding vowels The eight diphthongs in English are given below. DIPHTHONGS,1 e as in hay he,2 a as in life la f,3 as in boy b. 4 as in go g,5 a as in cow ka,6 as in hear h,7 as in pure pj. 8 e as in care ke,Communication Skills in English Page 8.
School of Distance Education,CONSONANTS, A consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the. vocal tract,p pronounced with the lips,t pronounced with the front of the tongue. k pronounced with the back of the tongue,h pronounced from glottis. f and v pronounced by forcing air through a narrow channel. m and n While pronouncing the air flowing through the nose So nasal sounds. There are 24 consonants in English They are given below. No Sound Example,1 p pin spill keep,2 b bit imbibe jumble. 3 t tin after what,4 d dog order lead,5 k cut character neck.
6 g get girl eager,7 t cheap nature watch,8 d jeep jealous judge. 9 m map man remind mine,10 n nap near line Christian. 11 sang song bring singing,12 l leaf relate detail. 13 f fat feather half,14 v van wave velvet,15 thin thank wrath. 16 then feather breath,17 s Sap sound cross,18 z maze gaze zenith.
19 she nation shout,20 measure pleasure treasure,21 h harm house he. 22 r run ruin ray,23 w we wicked watch,24 j yet yesterday you. Communication Skills in English Page 9,School of Distance Education. Problems of Indian English, 1 In Indian English S and z are not pronounced correctly in words and this leads to. confusion between pairs Examples are given below,Falls False.
Fears Hiss,Knees Fierce,2 Interchanging of the sounds and s. Shave Save,Sheet Seat,Shine Sign,3 Confusion between the sounds v and w. Very White,Voice Wear, To understand the distinctions between sounds enough practice with tongue twisters is. essential Example,She sells sea shells on the sea shore. Practice Test, A Identify the sounds of the underlined letters in the following words.
1 Curious 6 Trunk,2 Boat 7 Approve,3 My 8 Aware,4 Tragedy 9 Exploit. 5 Birds 10 Death,Communication Skills in English Page 10. School of Distance Education,1 2 u 3 ai 4 5 z 6 7 u. 8 e 9 i 10,Practice Test,B Write examples of words. 1 A word ending in d Answer judge,2 A word ending in g Answer pig.
3 A word beginning with Answer that,4 A word beginning with Answer shy. C Identify the sounds in the underlined phonetic symbols from the following words. 1 fathom 2 Vocabulary 3 noises 4 valves,5 raised 6 diamond. 1 2 u 3 iz 4 vz 5 zd 6 a,THE SYLLABLE, It is the smallest convenient unit of speech Syllables are formed by combining phonemes All. the words in English have one or more syllables According to the number of syllables in a word. words may be classified into mono syllabic words di syllabic words tri syllabic words and poly. syllabic words Usually syllable division is marked with a hyphen It is not always possible to mark. the syllable division in the orthographic representation ordinary spelling of English words It is. therefore better to write the phonetic transcription of words and mark syllable division in the. transcribed versions of words A syllable will always have a vowel There may or may not be. consonants in a syllable The number of syllables in a word can be understood by counting the. number of vowels in them, The structure of a syllable is c v c C stands for consonant and V stands for a vowel. Consonants are optional and so they are placed between the bars. Mono syllabic words, Words which have only one syllable are known as mono syllabic words Some examples are given.
dip dIp heat hi t kill kil,art t feed fi d will wil. keep ki p deed di d zoo zu,sin sin cheap t i p lip lip. pin pin each i t kin kin,class kl s ill il tin tin. eat i t far f lid lid,bat b t tip tip sip sip,kid kid sad s d mud m d. Communication Skills in English Page 11,School of Distance Education.
Di syllabic words, Words with two syllables are known as di syllabic words Examples are given below. Syllable division is marked with a hyphen,apple p l college k l id. intact in t kt battle b t l,retail ri teil glitter glit. intend in tend impart im p t,lonely l un li ladder l d. prepay pri pei rebound ri baund,engage in geid,rebuid ri bild relax ri l ks.
Tri syllabic words, Words having three syllables are called tri syllabic words Examples are listed below. strategy str t d i Consider k n sid,imitate im i tei t Intermit in t mi t. affection fek n Pedicure ped i kju,minister min i st Promotive pr m u tiv. algebra ael d3i br Radio rei di u,predicate pred i k t Satisfy s t i s fai. saturday s t dei Prepayment pri pei m nt,Poly syllabic words.
Words having more than three syllables are known as poly syllabic words Examples are given. propaganda pr p g n d,pronunciation pr n n si ei n. pulsatory p l s t r i,probability pr b bil ti,understandably n d st nd bli. exploitation ek spl i tei n,exterior ik sti ri,temporary tem p r r i. pronunciation pr n n si ei n,commercialization k m3 lai zei n. communion k mju ni n,complimentary k m pli men t r i.
Communication Skills in English Page 12,School of Distance Education. Communication Skills in English Page 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION First Semester B A B Sc B Com B B A Common Course in English 2012 Admission COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN ENGLISH Prepared by Dr C K Ahammed M A M Phil Adib i Fazil Ph D Associate Professor Centre For Advanced Studies And Research In English

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