Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies

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Facing History and Ourselves is an international educational and professional development. organization whose mission is to engage students of diverse backgrounds in an examination of. racism prejudice and antisemitism in order to promote the development of a more humane and. informed citizenry By studying the historical development of the Holocaust and other examples. of genocide students make the essential connection between history and the moral choices they. confront in their own lives For more information about Facing History and Ourselves please. visit our website at www facinghistory org, Copyright 2017 by Facing History and Ourselves Inc All rights reserved. Cover art credit iStock com Claudiad iStock com monkeywrenched. Facing History and Ourselves is a trademark registered in the US Patent Trademark Office. ISBN 978 1 940457 21 5,How to Use This Resource 5,Teaching Writing Is Teaching Thinking 6. Argumentative Writing Research and Directions in Learning and Teaching 9. PROMPTS AND STRATEGIES 16,Common Core Writing Prompts 16. Source List 18, STRATEGIES TO USE TO INTRODUCE THE WRITING PROMPTS 21. A Understanding the Prompt 21,Strategy 1 Dissecting the Prompt 22.
Strategy 2 Defining Key Terms 23, Strategy 3 Defining Key Concepts The Universe of Obligation 26. Strategy 4 Anticipation Guides The Roles We Play 30. Strategy 5 Journal Suggestions 33, STRATEGIES TO USE TO COLLECT AND ANALYZE EVIDENCE 34. B Gathering and Analyzing Evidence 34,Strategy 6 Evidence Logs and Index Cards 35. Strategy 7 Annotating and Paraphrasing Sources 39,Strategy 8 Collecting and Sharing Evidence 41. A Gallery Walk 41,B Give One Get One 42,C Two Minute Interview 42.
Strategy 9 Evaluating Evidence 45,Strategy 10 Relevant or Not 47. Strategy 11 Learning to Infer 49,Strategy 12 Assessing Source Credibility 51. Strategy 13 Successful Online Research 54,STRATEGIES TO USE WHILE WRITING FORMAL ESSAYS 55. C Crafting a Thesis and Organizing Ideas 55, Strategy 14 Taking a Stand on Controversial Issues Speaking and Listening Strategies 56. A Barometer 56,B SPAR Spontaneous Argumentation 57.
C Final Word 57, Strategy 15 Building Arguments through Mini Debates 59. Strategy 16 Linking Claims and Evidence with Analysis 60. Strategy 17 Thesis Sorting 62,Strategy 18 Tug for Truth 64. Strategy 19 Refuting Counterarguments 65, D Proving Your Point through Logical Reasoning in Body Paragraphs 67. Strategy 20 Claims Data and Analysis 68,Strategy 21 Using Exemplars or Mentor Texts 71. Strategy 22 Using Graphic Organizers to Organize Writing 72. Strategy 23 Sentence Strip Paragraphs 77, E Framing and Connecting Ideas in Introductions and Conclusions 79.
Strategy 24 Introductions Inverted Pyramid 80, Strategy 25 Conclusions Text to Text Text to Self Text to World 81. Strategy 26 Fishbowl 82,F Revising and Editing to Impact Your Audience 84. Strategy 27 3 2 1 85,Strategy 28 Adding Transitions 86. Strategy 29 Backwards Outline 87,Strategy 30 Conferring 90. Strategy 31 Read Alouds 92,G Publishing Sharing Reflecting 93.
Strategy 32 Reflecting on the Process 94,Strategy 33 Online Publishing 95. APPENDIX 97,Argumentative Writing Rubric Grades 9 12 98. HOW TO USE THIS RESOURCE, This resource is to support you the teacher in a Facing History and Ourselves classroom as. you help your students become stronger analytical thinkers and writers It includes materials to. supplement the Holocaust and Human Behavior resource book with a formal argumentative essay. Visit www facinghistory org hhb to get a copy of the book or explore the digital edition. The materials include the following, an overview of current research about argumentative writing that was used to inform this. specific writing prompts, thinking writing strategies appropriate for both history and language arts classrooms.
explicit alignment with the expectations of the Common Core Standards for Literacy in. History Social Studies, We do not expect that you will use every strategy in every section That would be time. consuming and redundant Each section includes many strategies that target similar thinking. and writing skills We encourage you to choose one or several in each section that best fit your. students needs, The strategies are organized into sections labeled by the types of thinking The sections are. organized into three main groups, strategies to use to introduce the writing prompts. strategies to use to collect and analyze evidence,strategies to use while writing a formal essay. TEACHING WRITING IS TEACHING THINKING, Helping students express themselves has always been central to Facing History s mission and.
curriculum Writing exploratory formal playful provocative helps students to engage self. and others and to deepen their understanding about important historical content and themes. Teaching writing will empower you to engage students both with the big ideas of history and. with the power of their own minds, Fundamentally teaching writing is teaching thinking That is something Facing History teachers. already value We hope you will find that this resource enhances and extends your existing. Thinking and Writing, Thinking and writing have rich connections one does not precede the other As historian Lynn. Hunt says Writing means many different things to me but one thing it is not writing is not. the transcription of thoughts already consciously present in my mind Writing is a magical and. mysterious process that makes it possible to think differently 1 This is equally true whether one. writes the old fashioned way putting pen to paper or composes and reworks ideas with the. use of electronic technologies,About the Writing Prompts. Fundamentally if students are to be strong writers they need to be strong analytical thinkers. And they need content worth thinking about 2 We had this in mind when designing the specific. writing prompts Note that the prompts, serve as essential questions for students to revisit throughout a unit. correspond to aspects of the Facing History journey. engage students ethically intellectually and emotionally. address core concepts such as significance causation agency evidence and continuity. and change that allow students to build historical understanding. demand the sort of text dependent analysis recommended in the Common Core Standards. Patterns of Thinking Students Use When Crafting Written. This resource is divided into seven sections based on patterns of thinking that historians and. other scholars use when analyzing content and crafting written arguments The goal is to. support students in their thinking and in the clear expression of that thinking for a specific. purpose and audience This approach differs considerably from the generic and outdated concept. of the writing process, 1 Lynn Hunt How Writing Leads to Thinking And Not the Other Way Around The Art of History Perspectives Online February 2010.
http www historians org perspectives issues 2010 1002 1002art1 cfm. 2 George Hillocks Research on Written Composition New Directions for Teaching Urbana IL ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and. Communication Skills and the National Conference on Research in English 1986. A Understanding the Prompt, In order to write a strong essay students need to know what they are being asked to think about. and need to have something to say 3 One challenge for many student writers is that they lack. sufficient understanding of the content As Joan Didion once stated I write entirely to find out. what I m thinking what I m looking at what I see and what it means 4 The strategies in Section. A are designed to help students engage with the big moral issues they will write about formally. later Note that many of the strategies in Section A are writing early exploratory messy writing. to help students formulate and develop lines of thought. B Gathering and Analyzing Evidence, The strategies in Section B help students think about what they are reading and learning. Historical reasoning requires students to focus on evidence perspective and interpretation 5 By. careful and close reading of a wide variety of primary and secondary sources students begin to. develop their own arguments They learn to examine evidence carefully to determine whether. it is accurate credible and persuasive 6 Note that these strategies help students engage with the. evidence and they precede the work of actually synthesizing the evidence and crafting a thesis. C Crafting a Thesis and Organizing Ideas, Much of historical thinking and writing involves forming strong arguments or interpretations. based on the core concepts in history Why does this matter How did this happen What. motivated people in the past to think and act in the ways they did How do we know what. we know How was this past situation similar to present day situations Fundamentally the. strategies in Section C help students learn to sort out What is my perspective on this issue. Note that we placed crafting a thesis after students have many opportunities to examine the. evidence A recent study found that college professors express concern that many students leap. to writing a thesis before they have explored their ideas in sufficient detail 7 Here crafting a. thesis and organizing ideas are paired as a way to help students begin to integrate synthesize and. categorize their ideas, D Proving Your Point through Logical Reasoning in Body Paragraphs. Argumentative essays typically have one central argument the thesis or central claim and. multiple smaller arguments in which the author presents a claim or reason cites evidence and. offers analysis This analysis technically called a warrant is the glue holding claims and evidence. together 8 In this section we include strategies to help students practice orally linking claims. evidence and analysis We also include ways to help students learn more flexible ways to present. those ideas so their writing feels fresh not formulaic. 3 Hillocks Research on Written Composition, 4 Joan Didion Why I Write New York Times Magazine December 5 1976 270.
5 Chauncey Monte Sano Beyond Reading Comprehension and Summary Learning to Read and Write in History by. Focusing on Evidence Perspective and Interpretation Curriculum Inquiry 41 no 2 2011 212 249. 6 Chauncey Monte Sano Disciplinary Literacy in History An Exploration of the Historical Nature of Adolescents Writing Journal of the. Learning Sciences 19 no 4 2010 539 568, 7 Stevi Quate ed Lessons Learned A Report of the DASSC Writing Inquiry Project June 1 2011 http writinginquiry wikispaces. com file view Lessonslearned pdf, 8 Andrea A Lunsford and John J Ruszkiewicz Everything s an Argument 2nd ed New York Bedford St Martin s 2001 95. E Framing and Connecting Ideas in Introductions and Conclusions. Facing History aims for students to make connections between history and the choices they. make in their own lives We believe that students are most engaged when they are stimulated. intellectually emotionally and ethically When writing a formal academic argumentative. essay students demonstrate that they can make these big conceptual connections mostly in the. opening and closing paragraphs In this section we include strategies that support students in. first making those connections to the here and now and then expressing those connections in. ways that are clear and compelling to their audience. F Revising and Editing to Impact Your Audience, Students can substantially improve their logic and expression when they receive clear specific. constructive feedback 9 They also become better readers of their own writing when they analyze. and critique others writing both mentor texts from the real world10 and their peers writing. During the revising stage students clarify reorganize and strengthen the content of their paper. This section provides two sorts of strategies to revise or rework earlier writing peer feedback. and self assessment While Facing History sees the importance of copyediting one s writing to. address grammar spelling or punctuation errors in this resource we emphasize the broader. challenges of helping students effectively develop and express their reasoning. G Publishing Sharing Reflecting, Thinkers write for many purposes the purpose of formal writing is to express an idea to an. audience It is important to end the writing process with an opportunity for students to share. what they wrote with their peers or an outside audience In this section we include strategies and. suggestions for how students can make their thinking public We also include ways that students. can think about what they learned about the topic and about themselves as writers. 9 Richard Beach and Tom Friedrich Response to Writing in Handbook of Writing Research ed C A McArthur S Graham and J Fitzgerald. New York The Guilford Press 2006 222 234, 10 Katie Wood Ray Study Driven A Framework for Planning Units of Study in the Writing Workshop Portsmouth NH Heinemann 2006.
ARGUMENTATIVE WRITING RESEARCH AND,DIRECTIONS IN LEARNING AND TEACHING. The following document is meant to help you understand current trends and directions in. the research around teaching argumentative writing in history Facing History and Ourselves. is concerned with many aspects of a learner s identity from moral philosopher to analytical. thinker to ethical decision maker to historical reasoner and recognizes the need for our. students to become profound thinkers and writers The following information is intended to help. Common Core Writing Prompts and Strategies A supplement to Holocaust and Human Behavior 2017 edition Facing History and Ourselves is an international educational and professional development organization whose mission is to engage students of diverse backgrounds in an examination of racism prejudice and antisemitism in order to promote the development of a more humane and informed

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