Classifying Sprint Training Methods ucoach com

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www uka org uk coaching, intensity than a time of 12 00s In sprinting absolute intensity is also linked to the velocity. reached during the race so by default 100m races tend to be of a higher absolute intensity than. 400m races because the top speed reached will be higher Remember even though the 400m is. a harder event in terms of effort the absolute intensity is lower and this is an important. concept to get to grips with, Relative intensity on the other hand relates to the individual s personal best or current. potential maximum performance Under these conditions an athlete s current season or. personal best is considered 100 relative intensity Hence when an athlete capable of running. ten seconds for the 100m takes twenty seconds to cover the same distance the run was. performed at 50 intensity, An easy way to calculate the relative intensity of a run is to divide the athletes 100. performance by the percentage you want them to be running at So 90 0 90 intensity for an. 11 00s runner will be 11 0 90 12 22s 80 0 8 will be 11 0 8 13 75 and so on. The Effect of Intensity on Recovery, Intensity has a significant impact upon recovery The higher the intensity of the run the longer. the time required to fully recover both between runs and between sessions The time taken for. an athlete to achieve full recovery between training runs is highly individual and may vary from. 3 to 45 minutes depending on the absolute intensity reached In the sprints as a practical. guide a coach can gauge when an athlete is fully recovered if the next run can be performed. in the same or faster time and with the same level of perceived effort If the athlete is unable. to reproduce the previous performance then the rest generally needs to be extended. Since total relaxation is a prerequisite for high absolute intensities fast times high intensity. runs will have a low perceived effort by definition think of Usain Bolt s World Record run at the. Beijing Olympics as an example However just because high intensity efforts look easy the. coach should not underestimate their impact upon the athlete Observation by the coaches of. several world record holders in the 100m suggest it can take up to two weeks for an athlete to. fully recover from such a feat, Unlike other forms of training the effect of high intensity work is not immediately apparent but.
instead is delayed sometimes by several days in a similar fashion to the way DOMs Delayed. Onset Muscle Soreness kicks in a day or more after the exercise that stimulated it. The fatigue that occurs as a result of high intensity work cannot be attributed to the build up of. lactate hydrogen ions or other metabolites due to the fact that very short high intensity. workloads seem to induce it Instead it is hypothesised to be the result of the loss of the fine co. ordination required to recruit large numbers of muscle fibres simultaneously and in the desired. order Therefore it is often described as neural or Central Nervous System CNS fatigue. CNS fatigue is not always noticeable during normal everyday activities but instead manifests. itself during high intensity exercise where it results in a reduction in performance Empirical. evidence suggests that the fatigue that accompanies high intensity sprint work takes at least. 48 hours to diminish Therefore a coach should think long and hard before scheduling high. intensity sessions on consecutive days,www uka org uk coaching. As previously covered in our discussion of the effect and intensity on fine motor skills as. intensity varies so too do the biomechanics of running In respect to absolute intensity the. biomechanics of an athlete running a world record in the 100m high power output are quite. different to those of an athlete running a world record in the marathon lower but sustained. power output Furthermore as an individual shifts between runs at varying relative intensities. their biomechanics will also change For example there is considerably more variation in. vertical displacement of the athlete s centre of mass during runs at lower intensities Looking. back at the Beijing Olympics Usain Bolt s biomechanics were very different during his first. round run of 10 20 when compared to his blistering world record final. Motor learning research tells us that for positive reinforcement of the technique to occur the. biomechanics used in practice must closely resemble those used in competition Therefore to. improve the timing of the muscle firing patterns inter muscular co ordination experienced. during competition a sprinter must practice running at close to race pace or 100 relative. intensity over the desired distance, Research and empirical evidence suggests than when an athlete drops below 95 relative. intensity there is little positive reinforcement of race specific mechanics Using the calculation. explained earlier this suggest that an athlete aiming to run 100m in 11 00s would need to run at. least 11 60s to gain positive effects in terms refining the specific mechanics required to push. their performance below 11s However if you are to spend time training at high intensity you. must make sure you respect the increased recovery requirements and the principle of perfect. practice such work brings with it In short you cannot run fast all the time and expect improved. performance without injury Instead you must be selective about your use of such work but this. is a topic better addressed in conjunction with discussion on the organisation of training. PART 2 THE CLASSIFICATION OF TRAINING, Over the years sprint coaches have developed a special vocabulary to describe the. characteristics of runs of varying durations and intensities The terms used in this article are. found predominantly in literature from the soviet sporting nations Although not universally. implemented by all coaches the following descriptions provide a good terminological basis from. which to discuss sprint training and will form the basis of definitions used in the UKA Coaching. Qualifications They have also been specifically chosen to align with definitions used in the UKA. Exercise Classification Hierarchy and other areas of the training literature specifically that. surrounding strength training, Due to the link between biomechanics and intensity work in the intensity zone of 95 100 plays. a significant role in a sprinter s programs Work of this intensity bracket is collectively referred. to as high intensity and can be sub classified as Speed Speed Endurance Specific Endurance. and Special Endurance For sprinters competing in distances from 60 400m this high intensity. work is classified under Competitive Exercises in the UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy. www uka org uk coaching, For more details see the Exercise Classification Hierarchy Document and Podcast on uCoach.
http coaching uka org uk document uka exercise classification hierarchy v1 0 document. http coaching uka org uk audio exercise classification hierarchy podcast. Competitive Exercises High Intensity Training, The UKA Exercise Classification Hierarchy ECH was developed to help coaches to organise. their training by placing all activities into one of four categories depending on the degree to. which an exercise transfers to the event being trained for. Within the ECH the term Competitive Exercises CE refers to exercises they are almost. identical to what happens in a race in terms of the mechanics that are used to execute them In. sprinting the CE category includes all the forms of sprinting that take place at near maximal. intensity e g Speed Speed Endurance Specific Endurance and Special Endurance work. SPEED WORK, The term Speed work describes runs of near maximal intensity 95 100 carried out under. alactic conditions that is under conditions where lactic acid levels in the muscles are minimal. and ATP CP also known as the phosphagen system is the key energy system being utilised to. power activity As a rule of thumb runs of near maximal intensity will remain alactic if they do. not exceed around seven seconds in duration and if full recovery is permitted between. consecutive runs To ensure the athlete learns to run with perfect technique when perceived. effort increases a speed session should be ended or poor practice will be reinforced. When considering what is and what isn t speed work for your athlete it is important to note that. an athlete s performance level plays a big part in determining what can be achieved via alactic. means Highly qualified e g international athletes will be able to run further before the run. stops being alactic and consequently can use longer distances than novices However the. higher absolute intensity will require them to take longer rest breaks between runs if they wish. to reproduce their previous performance because they have activated more muscle mass to. achieve the higher performance,Defining Full Recovery. For the record full recovery in the context of inter rep or set rest means a rest interval that is. long enough for the athlete to be capable of performing the next repetition in the same time or. faster than the last While research shows that ATP CP is fully restored by the body in around. three minutes common sense tells us that an athlete is not necessarily fully recovered from a. seven second effort say a 60m race in three minutes so the coach must exercise their best. judgement as to what is an appropriate full recovery for a run of a given distance at high. intensity As a rule of thumb for every second spent sprinting the athlete should rest one to two. minutes in order to fully recover So a five second effort will usually requires between five to ten. minutes rest Within this range ten minutes would be more appropriate for elite athletes while. younger developing athletes may be able to use less than five. www uka org uk coaching,Types of Speed Work, Since speed work encompasses alactic high intensity activity it incorporates both technical work. for acceleration and for maximum velocity mechanics Hence there are essentially three kinds. of sessions that fall under the speed category,Short acceleration runs acceleration focus.
Flying runs maximum velocity focus, Runs from a stationary start over varying distances where the total duration of the run is 7s or less. race modelling focus where the aim is to practice the first part of the event. The aim of work of this nature is to perfect acceleration and top speed mechanics while. expanding an athlete s ability to perform work under alactic conditions that is work. predominantly fuelled by ATP CP, This last point about expanding an athlete s alactic capacity is an important concept in the. sprints Most coaches are familiar with the idea of improving an athlete s anaerobic capacity. and ability to deal with the build up of lactic acid within the muscles often described as. developing an athlete s lactic tolerance Lactic tolerance is easy for a coach to assess because. you can see a huge difference between an athlete that is used to lactic work compared to those. who are not The key changes after training for lactic tolerance will be a longer time until the. athlete is severely affected by the accumulation of lactic and reduced perceived effort during. anaerobic training sessions The same concept also applies to the development of alactic. capacity where an athlete who is used to speed work will find they can do more volume of. speed work before the effects of lactic begin to be felt and the session has to be drawn to a. close and also will have less perceived effort during short duration runs only that now the. changes are more subtle, While for the purposes of definition we suggest that runs will cease to be alactic after seven. seconds in reality there is variation between individuals and for a beginner athlete the changes. may in fact begin at six seconds If through training over several years we were then able to. shift this alactic window from 6 to 7 5 seconds that would represent a huge performance. improvement over the 100m because they can now run for 1 5 seconds longer before they ever. experience any perception of lactic acid and the event barely lasts more than ten seconds for. mature adult competitors,www uka org uk coaching,Speed Work Acceleration Focus. Speed work that focuses on acceleration is usually performed from blocks crouched three. point or a standing start and aims to reproduce the acceleration mechanics used in a race The. distances used will vary depending on the level of the athlete as young athletes reach lower top. speeds and hence finish accelerating earlier than adults So whereas an acceleration focus for. Usain Bolt may be 40 50m for a young athlete it may only be 10 20m Full recovery is required. between each run so that the athlete is able to perform each repetition without a drop off in. performance Again this will mean longer recoveries are required for more qualified athletes. who are reaching higher absolute intensities than for younger developmental athletes. Therefore rest intervals can vary from perhaps 1 2 min for youngsters to as much as 7 minutes. for mature elite competitors, So for a young athlete a typical acceleration session might be runs over 20m from a crouched.
start with two minutes rest between each repetition For an elite athlete they may be sprints. over 40m from blocks with a seven minute rest break. www uka org uk coaching,Speed Work Maximum Velocity. When maximum velocity is the focus the key is to reach as high a velocity as possible and then. It is amazing that something so simple and natural can at the same time become so complex From a coaching perspective it is important to be able to label and classify sessions so you can track your athlete s progress as they develop Running methods can be classified with respect to the primary energy system used to fuel the reps Therefore methods can be describe as being alactic meaning

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