CHEMISTRY Kerala

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THE NATIONAL ANTHEM,Jana gana mana adhinayaka jaya he. Bharatha bhagya vidhata,Punjab Sindh Gujarat Maratha. Dravida Utkala Banga,Vindhya Himachala Yamuna Ganga. Uchchala Jaladhi taranga,Tava subha name jage,Tava subha asisa mage. Gahe tava jaya gatha,Jana gana mangala dayaka jaya he.
Bharatha bhagya vidhata,Jaya he jaya he jaya he,Jaya jaya jaya jaya he. India is my country All Indians are my brothers and. I love my country and I am proud of its rich and varied. heritage I shall always strive to be worthy of it, I shall give my parents teachers and all elders respect. and treat everyone with courtesy, To my country and my people I pledge my devotion In. their well being and prosperity alone lies my happiness. State Council of Educational Research and Training SCERT. Poojappura Thiruvananthapuram 695012 Kerala, Website www scertkerala gov in e mail scertkerala gmail com. Phone 0471 2341883 Fax 0471 2341869,Typesetting and Layout SCERT.
Printed at KBPS Kakkanad Kochi 30,Department of Education Government of Kerala. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,Dear children,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456 As students of Class X the highest class in a high school you. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456 are at the portals of the higher secondary education This. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456, Chemistry text has accordingly been designed to cater to. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,the demands of the next academic level. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456,1234567890123456, The text provides opportunities for student s active. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456, participation in the classrooms We have tried to organise. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456 these activities giving due emphasis to the level of your. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456 competence through investigative learning. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. Scientific activity while enabling social progress must also. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456, uphold eco friendly values This should happen at deeper. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456, levels of any science enquiry and activity The text has tried. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456 to incorporate such ideologies to the possible extent and to. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456 discuss emerging areas like Green Chemistry. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
The initial units focus on explaining peculiarities of elements. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456, related to their electronic configuration identifying the. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456, relationship between mass of substances and their number of. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456, molecules and also identifying the significance of mole. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456 concept in chemistry,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456, Following this discussions on the rate of reactions and.
1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456, equilibrium and chemical reactivity of metals and their. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,stages of production are made,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456 Exposing the students to the basic concepts of Organic. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456 Chemistry the book has introduced naturally occuring and. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456, man made materials including medicines polymers etc. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,which are inevitable to human progress.
1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456, It is the duty of each one of you to assimilate ideas in this. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456, text carry out the activities effectively and attain your goal. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456.
1234567890123456 Hope that your journey be fruitful in this through active. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,1234567890123456. 1234567890123456,1234567890123456,interactions and appropriate activities. Wishing you the best,Dr P A Fathima,Director SCERT. Textbook Development Team,Anil M R Pushpa N,HSST HG GGHSS HSA GGHSS Attingal. Karamana Thiruvananthapuram Thiruvananthapuram,Anilkumar P K Santhoshkumar V G.
HSA CHMHSS Kavumpady HSA BYKV HSS,Thillenkery Kannur Valavannur Malappuram. Babu Payyath Aloysius E,BPO BRC Meladi HSA St Joseph HSS. Kozhikkode Thiruvananthapuram,Premachandran K V Annie Varghese. HSA GHSS HSA GHSS,Maniyoor Kozhikkode Kudamalloor Kottayam. Dr Subhash Babu Dr Vishnu V S,Deputy Director Rtd Assistant Professor.
Collegiate Education Thiruvananthapuram Department of Chemistry. Govt Arts College Thiruvananthapuram,Sebastian Lukose T J Dr Abraham George. Selection Grade Lecturer of Chemistry Rtd Head Dept of Chemistry Rtd. University College Thiruvananthapuram Mar Ivanious College Thiruvananthapuram. Dr Alaudeen M,Principal Rtd Govt College,Elarithattu Kasaragode. English Version,Dr Sushil Kumar R, Associate Professor of English DB College Sasthamcotta Kollam. Rathy S Nair,HSST English Big Bazar HSS Palakkad,Raakhy Radhakrishnan. HSA English RRVBHSS Kilimanoor Thiruvananthapuram,Sonia S Ravi.
HSA English Concordia HSS Peroorkada Thiruvananthapuram. Abhilash Thiruvoth Mooza Mustajib E C, GVHSS Payyoli Kozhikkode MMETHSS Melmuri Malappuram. Bimalkumar S Lohithakshan K,GBHSS Thevalli Assisi HSS for deaf. Kollam Malaparambu Malappuram,Academic Coordinator. Dr Sobha Jacob,Research Officer SCERT Kerala,1 PERIODIC TABLE AND. ELECTRONIC CONFIGURATION 07,2 MOLE CONCEPT 27,3 RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS AND.
CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM 48,4 REACTIVITYSERIES AND,ELECTROCHEMISTRY 71. THE SYMBOLS USED IN THE TEXTBOOK,Additional Information. Need not be assessed,ICT Possibilities for Concept Clarity. Significant Learning Outcomes,Let Us Assess,Extended Activities. What is Liquid,Synthetic element, Don t you also have the same doubt Let us try to find more details.
relating to the periodic table You have learned in the lower class. about the modern periodic table in which the elements are. comprehensively classified What is the importance of the. periodic table What is the basis of the classification of elements. in this table Don t you think that elements are classified in such. a way that their properties can be precisely and clearly analysed. and predicted, Is there any relation between atomic structure and the. classification of elements in the periodic table Let us examine. Chemistry Standard X,You have already learned about different atom. models You also know that according to the Bohr,model of the atom electrons are arranged in. Subshells different shells or energy levels around the. The names s p d f are given to nucleus in the increasing order of energy. subshells based on words indicating As the distance from the nucleus increases. certain properties related to the,the energy of the electrons in the shells. atomic structure of elements,increases and the attractive force between the.
s sharp p principal,nucleus and the electrons decreases. d diffuse f fundamental, According to modern theories of The electronic configuration of lithium 3Li is. atomic structure electrons revolve 2 1, in a three dimensional region Like this write the electronic configuration of. around the nucleus Each main sodium and argon and complete Table 1 1. energy level has sub levels or sub, shells In these subshells there are Element Shells. regions where there is a high K L M,probability of finding electrons 11.
These are known as orbitals The 18,maximum number of electrons that Table 1 1. can be accommodated in an orbital How many electrons are present in the M. is 2 The s subshell has only one shell of argon which is its outermost shell. orbital with a spherical shape The,p subshell has 3 orbitals which are. dumb bell shaped the d subshell How many more electrons can be. has 5 orbitals and the f subshell has accommodated in the M shell. 7 orbitals The shapes of these,orbitals are more complex. The element after argon potassium 19K has one,electron more than that of argon The electronic. configuration of potassium is 2 8 8 1 Why does, the last electron of potassium go to the 4th shell.
instead of occupying the third shell even though,the third shell has the capacity to accommodate. ten more electrons,Based on further studies related to atomic. structure scientists have formulated certain,assumptions and laws to explain this. s subshell Accordingly shells such as K L M N are,considered principal energy levels and each. principal energy level contains sub energy levels,p subshell.
Chemistry Standard X, or subshells All main energy levels or shells except K have more. than one sub shell K shell has only one subshell The subshells. are named s p d and f, Each of the main energy level contains the same number of Using the KALZIUM. subshells as its serial number Thus the K shell which is the first software of IT. shell has 1 subshell L shell has 2 sub shells and so on school Edubuntu. check the accuracy of, What will be the number of subshells in the shells M and N the entries in Table. See the subshells present in each shell shown in Table 1 2. Shell number 1 2 3 4,Subshells s s p s p d s p d f. Which subshell is common to all shells, How can you identify the shell to which each subshell belongs.
Let s attach the serial number of the shell to the symbol of the. subshell For example 1s to indicate the s subshell of the first. shell and 2s for the s subshell of second shell and so on. Fill in Table 1 3,Shell number 1 2 3 4,Subshell s s p s p d s p d f. Representation,of the subshell 1s 3p 4d,Filling of Electrons in the Subshell. Have you found out the subshells present in each shell from the. You also know the maximum number of electrons that can be. accommodated in a shell What will be the number of electrons. that can be accommodated in each subshell,Chemistry Standard X. In an atom the first shell contains s subshell the second shell. has s and p subshells the third shell has s p and d subshells. and the fourth shell has s p d and f subshells The maximum. number of electrons that can be accommodated in each sub. shell is 2 in s 6 in p 10 in d and 14 in f, The maximum number of electrons in each of the first 4 shells is. given Find the number of electrons in the subshells of each and. complete Table 1 4 given below,Shell number 1 2 3 4.
Subshell 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f,The maximum number of. electrons in each sub 2 2,The maximum number of,electrons in each shell 2 8 18 32. When electrons are added to the subshells of the,atoms they are filled in the order from subshells. of lower energy to those of higher energy This is,called the subshell electronic configuration of. Figure 1 1 will help you in finding the order in,which the energy of various subshells increases.
Note the direction of the arrow head indicating this. Write the subshells in the increasing order of their. 1s 2s 2p 3s,Now let us learn to write the subshell wise. electronic configuration,Let us see how the electronic configuration of. lithium 3Li is written,Figure 1 1 What is the atomic number of lithium. Chemistry Standard X, The atomic number of an element will be the same as the number. of electrons in one atom of the element Electrons are filled in 1s. followed by 2s in the increasing order of energy This can be. represented as 1s2 2s1 This is the subshell electronic configuration. of lithium, While writing the subshell electronic configuration the number.
written on the left side of the subshell shows the shell number. and the number shown as super script on the right shows the. number of electrons The electronic configuration of lithium is. to be read as one s two two s one 1s2 2s1, Complete Table 1 5 writing the subshell electronic configuration. of the given elements, Element Number of Subshell electronic configuration. As students of Class X the highest class in a high school you are at the portals of the higher secondary education This Chemistry text has accordingly been designed to cater to the demands of the next academic level The text provides opportunities for student s active participation in the classrooms We have tried to organise

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