Chapter 2 Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation

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Chapter 2 Table of Contents,1 Measure Description 2. 2 Application Conditions of the Protocol 3,2 1 Common Program Types 3. 2 2 Program Target Markets 4,3 Savings Calculations 5. 3 1 Algorithms 5,3 2 Electric Peak Demand Savings 6. 4 Role of the Lighting Program Implementer 8,4 1 Program Implementer Data Requirements 8.
4 2 Implementation Data Collection Method 8,5 Role of the Evaluator 10. 5 1 Evaluator Data Requirements 10,5 2 Evaluator Data Collection Method 10. 6 Measurement and Verification Plan 12,6 1 IPMVP Option 12. 6 2 Verification Process 12,6 3 Measurement Process 13. 6 4 Report M V and Program Savings 15,6 5 Data Requirements and Sources 15.
7 Impact Evaluation 20,7 1 Sample Design 20,8 Other Evaluation Issues 22. 8 1 Upstream Delivery 22,8 2 New Construction 22,8 3 First Year vs Lifetime Savings 22. 8 4 Program Evaluation Elements 23,9 Resources 24,10 Appendix 26. List of Tables,Table 1 Required Lighting Data Form Fields 9. Table 2 Lighting Data Required by Evaluator 11,Table 3 Example Lighting Inventory Form 26.
Table 4 New York Standard Approach for Estimating Energy Savings from Energy Efficiency Programs. New York Department of Public Service Appendix C Standard Fixture Watts excerpt page 270 27. Table 5 New York Standard Approach for Estimating Energy Savings from Energy Efficiency Programs. 2010 Page 109 28,1 Measure Description, The Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol the protocol describes methods to. account for energy savings resulting from the programmatic installation of efficient lighting. equipment in large populations of commercial industrial and other nonresidential facilities. This protocol does not address savings resulting from changes in codes and standards or from. education and training activities A separate Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol addresses. methods for evaluating savings resulting from lighting control measures such as adding time. clocks tuning energy management system commands and adding occupancy sensors. Historically lighting equipment has accounted for a significant portion of cost effective electric. energy efficiency resources in the United States a trend likely to continue as old technologies. improve and new ones emerge By following the methods presented here the energy savings. from lighting efficiency programs in different jurisdictions or regions can be measured. uniformly providing planners policymakers regulators and others with sound comparable data. for comprehensive energy planning Also the methods here can be scaled to match the. evaluation costs to the value of the resulting information 1. An energy efficiency measure is defined as a set of actions and equipment changes that result in. reduced energy use compared to standard or existing practices while maintaining the same or. improved service levels for customers or processes Energy efficient lighting measures in. existing facilities deliver the light levels illuminance and spatial distribution required for. activities or processes at reduced energy use compared to original or baseline conditions In new. construction original or baseline condition usually refers to the building codes and standards. in place at the time of construction, Examples of energy efficient lighting measures in commercial industrial and other. nonresidential facilities include, Retrofitting existing linear fluorescent fixtures with efficacious 2 lamps and ballasts. or delamping overlit spaces, Replacing incandescent lamps with compact fluorescent lamps. Replacing high bay fixtures such as metal halide or linear fluorescent with. efficacious high bay equipment such as light emitting diodes or high performance. linear fluorescents, In practice lighting retrofit projects and new construction projects commonly implement lighting.
fixture and lighting controls measures concurrently This protocol accommodates these mixed. As discussed in the section Considering Resource Constraints of the Introduction chapter to this report small. utilities as defined under U S Small Business Administration regulations may face additional constraints in. undertaking this protocol Therefore alternative methodologies should be considered for such utilities. Efficiency of lighting equipment is expressed as efficacy in units of lumens per Watt where lumens are a. measure of light output,2 Application Conditions of the Protocol. Energy efficiency lighting programs result in the installation of commercial industrial and. nonresidential lighting measures in customer facilities The programs can take advantage of. varying delivery mechanisms depending on target markets and customer types Primarily these. mechanisms can be distinguished by the parties receiving incentive payments from a program. Although the methods this protocol describes apply to all delivery mechanisms issues with. customer and baseline equipment data vary with each. 2 1 Common Program Types, The following are descriptions of common program types used to acquire lighting energy and. demand savings and their associated data issues,2 1 1 Incentive and Rebate. Under this model implementers pay program participants in target markets to install lighting. measures A participants receives either an incentive payment based on savings kilowatt hour. kWh or a rebate for each fixture or lamp fixture lamp The terms incentive and rebate. sometimes are used interchangeably but generally incentives are calculated based on project. savings and rebates are based on equipment installed Examples of participants include. contractors building owners and property managers, Savings can be estimated using simple engineering calculations Some programs include a. measurement and verification M V process in which key parameters such as hours of use. HOU baseline and retrofit fixture wattages are verified or measured or both as part of. project implementation, Rebate programs typically pay for specific lighting equipment types for example a 4 foot four.
lamp T5 electronic ballast fixture often after they have been installed so assumptions must be. made about baseline or replaced equipment The result is a tradeoff increased administrative. efficiency for less certainty about baseline conditions and therefore savings. Incentive programs often collect more detailed baseline data than do rebate programs Typically. these data include baseline and retrofit equipment wattages and HOUs which facilitate. determination of savings impacts, Although rebate programs typically track useful information about replacement lighting. equipment they may not collect baseline data,2 1 2 Upstream Buy Down. In upstream buy down scenarios programs pay incentive dollars to one or more entities such as. retail outlets distributors or manufacturers in the lighting equipment market distribution chain. Although residential equipment programs commonly use the upstream buy down program. delivery approach particularly for compact fluorescent lamps commercial and industrial lighting. programs use it less often, Upstream buy down programs do not interact with the end use customers purchasing energy. efficient equipment thus baseline conditions and installation rates cannot be known Program. planners implementers and impact evaluators estimate these parameters based on their. experience with other programs or targeted market research studies. 2 1 3 Direct Install, Under this delivery approach contractors acting on a program s behalf install energy efficient. lighting equipment in customer facilities The programs pay contractors directly Customers. receive a lighting retrofit at reduced cost Direct install programs often target hard to reach. customers typically small businesses that are overlooked by contractors working with. incentive and rebate programs, Direct install programs can usually collect precise information about baseline and replacement.
equipment and the program implementers may have reasonable estimates of annual operating. hours Data when collected can be used directly by impact evaluation researchers. 2 2 Program Target Markets, In addition to being distinguished by their delivery mechanisms commercial industrial and. non residential lighting programs can be classified by targeting retrofits serving existing. facilities and new construction markets Program delivery types described above apply to. retrofit programs New construction programs also employ incentives and rebates and customers. may benefit from upstream buy downs to improve lighting energy efficiency. New construction programs present evaluators with a dilemma in establishing baselines for. buildings that have yet to be built The problem is addressed by referring to new construction. energy codes for commercial industrial and nonresidential facilities usually by referencing. IECC or ASHRAE Standard 90 1 The codes define lighting efficiency primarily in terms of. lighting power density lighting watts ft2 calculated using simple spreadsheets Other federal. state and local standards may set additional baseline constraints on lamps ballasts and fixture. efficiency efficacy,3 Savings Calculations, Project and program savings for lighting and other technologies result from the difference. between the energy consumption that would have occurred had the measure not been. implemented the baseline and the consumption occurring after the retrofit Energy calculations. use the following fundamental equation, Energy Savings Baseline Period Energy Use Reporting Period Energy Use. Adjustments, The equation s adjustment term calibrates baseline or reporting use and demand to the same set. of conditions Common adjustments account for changes in schedules occupancy rates weather. or other parameters that can change between baseline and reporting periods Adjustments. commonly apply to heating ventilating and air conditioning HVAC measures but less. commonly to lighting measures or are inherent in algorithms for calculating savings. Regulators and program administrators may require that lighting energy efficiency programs. report demand savings and energy savings Demand calculations use the following fundamental. Demand Savings Baseline Period Demand Reporting Period Demand. Adjustments, Demand savings which is calculated for one or more time of use periods is typically reported.
for the peak period of the utility system serving the efficiency program customers. 3 1 Algorithms, The following equations calculate first year energy and demand on site savings for lighting. measures in commercial industrial nonresidential facilities. 3 1 1 Energy Savings, Equations in this section are used to calculate first year energy savings for lighting measures. Equation 1 Lighting Electric Energy Savings, kWh Save light Annual kWh savings resulting from the lighting efficiency project. fix watt base ee i Fixture wattage baseline or energy efficient fixture type i. qty base ee i Fixture quantity baseline or energy efficient fixture type i. u Usage group a collection of fixtures sharing the same operating hours and schedules. for example all fixtures in office spaces or hallways. HOU base ee Annual hours of use baseline or energy efficient usually assumed. unchanged from baseline unless new controls are installed. Equation 2 Interactive Cooling Energy Savings for Interior Lighting. Equation 3 Interactive Heating Energy Savings for Interior Lighting. kWh Save interact cool Interactive cooling energy impact due to a lighting efficiency. kWh Save interact heat Interactive heating energy impact from a lighting efficiency project. IF kWh c Interactive cooling factor the ratio of cooling energy reduction per unit of. lighting energy reduction resulting from the reduction in lighting waste heat removed by. an HVAC system, IF kWh h Interactive heating factor the ratio of heating energy increase per unit of. lighting energy resulting from reduction in lighting waste heat that must be supplied by. an HVAC system during the heating season, Note that interactive effects apply only to interior lighting that operates in mechanically heated.
or cooled spaces, Equation 4 Total Annual Energy Savings Due to Lighting Project. 3 2 Electric Peak Demand Savings, The equations in this section are used to calculate first year electric peak demand savings for. lighting measures Additional information is available in the UMP document Peak Demand and. Time Differentiated Energy Savings,Equation 5 Lighting Electric Peak Demand Savings. CF coincidence factor the fraction 0 0 to 1 0 of connected lighting load turned on. during a utility peak period, Equation 6 Interactive Electric Cooling Demand Savings for Interior Lighting. kilowatt kW Peak Save interact cool Interactive electric cooling demand impact from a. lighting efficiency project, IF kW c Interactive cooling factor ratio of cooling demand reduction per unit of lighting.
demand reduction during the peak period resulting from the reduction in lighting waste. heat removed by an HVAC system, Interactive effects apply only to interior lighting operating in mechanically cooled spaces. Interactive heating effects are usually ignored in North America because heating. equipment is typically nonelectric and heating demand is usually not coincident with. utility system peaks, Equation 7 Total Electric Peak Demand Savings Due to Lighting Project. Chapter 2 Commercial and Industrial Lighting Evaluation Protocol The Uniform Methods Project Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures Dakers Gowans Left Fork Energy Subcontract Report NREL SR 7A30 53827 April 2013

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