Business Studies Lower Secondary Teacher Guide

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Business Studies, Issued free to schools by the Department of Education. Published in 2006 by the Department of Education Papua New Guinea. Copyright 2006 Department of Education Papua New Guinea. All rights reserved No part of this publication may be reproduced stored in a. retrieval system or transmitted by any form or by any means electronic. mechanical photocopying recording or otherwise without the prior written. permission of the publisher,ISBN 9980 935 45 6,Acknowledgments. The Business Studies Lower Secondary Teacher Guide was written edited. and formatted by the Curriculum Development Division of the Department of. Education The development of the teacher guide was coordinated by. Jennifer Sangga, Teachers inspectors tertiary educators and the Business Studies Advisory. Committee have assisted in the development of this teacher guide through. meetings workshops and consultations, This document was developed with the support of the Australian. Government through the Curriculum Reform Implementation Project. Lower Secondary Teacher Guide,Secretary s message iv.
Introduction 1,Teaching and learning 2,Assessing Business Studies 15. Planning and programming units 23,Business Studies requirements 26. Business Studies units 27,Recording and reporting 112. Resources 117,References 120,Glossaries 123,Appendix Sample documents 127. Business Studies,Secretary s message, This teacher guide is to be used by teachers when implementing the.
Business Studies Lower Secondary Syllabus Grades 9 and 10 throughout. Papua New Guinea This teacher guide builds upon concepts skills and. attitudes from Upper Primary and links to concepts skills and attitudes in. Upper Secondary It provides a sound foundation for further learning. The Business Studies Lower Secondary Teacher Guide contributes to. integral human development as it is based on the students physical. environments societies and cultures It links to the National Education. Plan s vision which is that secondary education enables students to achieve. their individual potential to lead productive lives as members of the local. national and international community by undertaking a broad range of. subjects and work related activities at school that can be used in everyday. By studying Business Studies students acquire knowledge to participate in. Papua New Guinea s changing economic and business environment and. enterprise activities using appropriate communication and information. technologies They acquire skills for their future roles as citizens workers. employers entrepreneurs and consumers, In this subject students develop business management and entrepreneurial. knowledge and skills that will enable them to make use of their immediate. resources in starting small businesses and or income generating projects. and activities This subject will further encourage students to be enterprising. innovative and creative and use ethical business practices They will learn. to become responsible producers and wise consumers in their own. communities whether formal or informal, Business Studies is a practical oriented subject in which students will be. provided opportunities to apply entrepreneurial skills in practical projects and. activities, I commend and approve this Business Studies teacher guide for use in all. schools with Grades 9 and 10 students throughout Papua New Guinea. Dr Joseph Pagelio,Secretary for Education,Lower Secondary Teacher Guide. Introduction, The purpose of this teacher guide is to help you to implement the Business.
Studies syllabus It is designed to stimulate you to create exciting and. meaningful teaching programs and lessons by enabling you to choose. relevant and purposeful activities and teaching strategies It will encourage. you to research and look for new and challenging ways of facilitating. students learning, The teacher guide and the syllabus must be used side by side The syllabus. states the learning outcomes for the subject and each unit and outlines the. content and skills that students will learn and the assessment requirements. The teacher guide provides direction for you in using the outcomes approach. in your classroom using a step by step approach Although the syllabus. provides the assessment tasks at the end of each unit the outcomes. approach requires you to consider the assessment requirements early in. your planning This is reflected in the teacher guide. This teacher guide provides examples of teaching and learning strategies for. Business Studies sample programs for each unit elaboration of suggested. activities and content detailed information on how to mark assessment tasks. and the resources needed to teach Business Studies The section on. recording and reporting shows you how to record students marks and how. to report against the broad learning outcomes,Business Studies. Teaching and learning,How students learn,What I hear I forget. What I hear and see I remember a little,What I hear see and discuss I begin to understand. What I hear see discuss and do I acquire knowledge and skill. What I teach to another I master,Active Learning Credo statement by Silberman 1996.
In support of this are the findings that we remember. 20 of what we hear,40 if what we see, 90 of what we see hear say and do or what we discover for ourselves. A student centred approach to learning, Different students learn in different ways Some students learn best by. writing others by talking and discussing others by reading and others by. listening Most students learn by using a combination of these All people. learn skills through practicing and repetition You need to use a variety of. teaching strategies to cater for the different ways your students learn. Teaching and learning strategies, To assist and encourage students to learn you perform certain tasks These. are referred to as teaching strategies You need to engage students directly. in learning but there are times when you have to take charge of the learning. in the class and teach particular concepts or ideas. Teaching strategies include,group work,role play drama. skills practice,research inquiry,class discussions debates.
problem solving activities, teacher talk instructions explanations lectures or reading aloud. directed question and answer sessions,audio visual presentations. text books or worksheets,directed assignments,demonstration and modelling. Lower Secondary Teacher Guide,guest speakers,field work. classroom displays,Using groups as a teaching and learning strategy.
Using groups is an important strategy in Business Studies as students learn. from each other not just from the teacher Group work encourages students. to participate in achieving a shared goal and collaborative learning In. deciding whether to use groups or not you need to consider. your intended outcomes, the extent to which the outcomes can be achieved by a group. the lesson content,the time allocated for the completion of the task. the classroom setting,available materials and resources. the structure of the group based on gender ability cultural background. and student preferences,Groups work well when, the group decides upon their goal timelines and tasks. students realise that success depends on the achievement of the whole. group not individuals, the task is broken into subtasks which must be finished to successfully.
complete the overall task,the whole class is involved in the activity. everyone has a role to play e g implementing and managing a small. business activity, membership of small groups is changed regularly to provide a variety of. learning experiences for all students,Strategies for organising and managing groups. Mixed ability groups the more able learners in the group can help the. others to master the work so that the teacher need not teach some parts. Same ability groups the teacher can leave the groups of faster learners. to get on with the work on their own She he can give extra help to. individual learners in the slower groups, Using group leaders monitors some teachers appoint faster more able. learners as group leaders or monitors who can help slower learners. Business Studies,Developing skills,Principles and procedures.
Students need to develop skills to help them learn Skills development. should happen as a part of a student s learning experience and the learning. and practicing of skills needs to occur in the context of the units being. Skills learning tends to be most effective when,students go from the known to the unknown. students understand why it is necessary to gain mastery of specific skills. skills are developed sequentially at increasing levels of difficulty. students identify the components of the skill, the whole skill and the components of the skills are demonstrated. there are frequent opportunities for practice and immediate feedback. the skills being taught are varied in terms of amount and type according. to the needs of students,the skill is used in a range of contexts. To teach skills effectively you need to include learning activities that span. the range from teacher directed to student centred learning use groups of. different sizes ranging from the whole class to small groups and use a range. of teaching strategies which use higher order skills as your students. Bloom s taxonomy of skills, Bloom s Taxonomy is a way to classify skills High level. activities or questions as they progress in difficulty. The lower levels require less in the way of thinking. skills As you move up the hierarchy the activities. require higher level thinking skills Evaluation,Synthesis review.
create evaluate,Low level Analysis hypothesise judge. analyse invent,Application compare design,apply distinguish compose. Comprehension demonstrate contrast,explain illustrate differentiate. Knowledge identify,state discuss,write describe,list recognise. Lower Secondary Teacher Guide,Language skills for Business Studies.
Students need to learn how to speak and listen read and write view and. observe Students learn language skills through for example. discussions,oral and written reports,interviewing opportunities. Providing opportunities for students to listen is very important especially in. Business Studies Guest speakers CDs tapes radio television are. listening resources When students have listening experiences as a regular. part of classroom activities their ability to listen and their comprehension will. Place of vernacular in Lower Secondary, Maintenance of the student s language is something that continues at Lower. Secondary as stated in the Department of Education s Language policy in all. schools At times it will be appropriate to use vernacular Tok Pisin or Motu. to explain concepts or ideas Vernacular can be used to describe and. illustrate those things that do not have English translations There will also. be opportunities to use exercises which target vernacular development such. as from English to the vernacular Motu or Tok Pisin For example it would. be appropriate to use the vernacular or Tok Pisin when running a small. business project in the community,Writing skills, Students must be able to choose the right word to get the message across. and be able to put words together in a way that makes sense to the reader. The ability to write well and use appropriate vocabulary takes a lot of. practice and writing skills and techniques should be emphasised in Business. Thinking and questioning skills, Business Studies assists students to analyse and think critically about. information they come across By processing information rather than rote. learning students are more likely to understand and retain what they have. learnt Students must be involved in the process of thinking instead of simply. accepting the end products of someone else s thoughts The ability to think. critically can be taught effectively by asking the types of questions listed. what do you notice see find,what difference do you.
what similarities do you,which ones belong together why. Business Studies,why don t these belong to this group. what could have happened if,what would be like if,How would you. what explanation would you give for,is this always so. does evidence of change the original explanation,how can this be tested checked.
suppose what would happen,what makes you think this would happen. what would be needed for that to happen,is there a different explanation. if happened what would happen next, Teaching and learning strategies for Business Studies. Here are teaching and learning strategies which can be used to make. learning more meaningful and interesting in Business Studies You should. vary your lessons by using different teaching strategies making sure that the. one you use for the lesson is suitable for your lesson outcomes Many of. these strategies work together for example developing consequence charts. during class discussions helps students make realistic decisions. Brainstorming, This is a technique in which a class or group meets in order to record all the. information already known on a topic to develop new ideas or to stimulate. creative thinking Participants let the ideas come into their heads write. Business Studies Lower Secondary Syllabus Grades 9 and 10 throughout Papua New Guinea This teacher guide builds upon concepts skills and attitudes from Upper Primary and links to concepts skills and attitudes in Upper Secondary It provides a sound foundation for further learning The Business Studies Lower Secondary Teacher Guide contributes to integral human development as it is based

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