BILBO Georgia Department of Transportation

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BILBO 9CH4 AND DELTA 38JA23,LATE ARCHAIC AND EARLY WOODLAND SHELL MOUNDS. AT THE MOUTH OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER,Morgan R Crook Jr. Antonio J Waring Jr Archaeological Laboratory,Department of Anthropology. University of West Georgia,With Contributions By,Steven Hale David Jarzen Logan Kistler Lee Newsom. Fredrick Rich Dana Russell Elisabeth Sheldon and Julie Wieczkowski. Sponsored By,Cultural Resources Section,Office of Environment and Location.
Georgia Department of Transportation,Waterways Section. Office of Intermodal Programs,Georgia Department of Transportation. Occasional Papers in Cultural Resource Management 17. Georgia Department of Transportation,Occasional Papers in Cultural Resource Management. The Georgia Department of Transportation s DOT Occasional Papers in Cultural Resource Management series consists of. archaeological and historical research sponsored by the Georgia DOT These reports have been produced by Georgia DOT in. house cultural resource staff and by consultants under contract with the Georgia DOT Reports within the series present. information ranging from cultural resource contextual themes to specific data associated with historic properties considered. eligible for the National Register of Historic Places that would be affected by transportation projects. Each report addresses research questions and the conclusions and interpretations contained therein reflect the theoretical. orientation background and assorted biases of the authors Each manuscript has been prepared as a result of a project with. Georgia DOT The reports are distributed by the Office of Environment Location Georgia Department of Transportation. For a copy of any or all of the reports please indicate the specific report there may be a minimal charge for copying if the report. is out of print,Georgia Department of Transportation. Occasional Papers in Cultural Resource Management, No 1 Archaeological Investigations at 9CK DOT 7 Cherokee County Georgia by William R Bowen 1982.
No 2 Cagle Site Report Archaic and Early Woodland Period Manifestations in the North Georgia Piedmont by Morgan R. Crook Jr 1984, No 3 Lowe Site Report A Contribution to Archaeology of the Georgia Coastal Plain by Morgan R Crook Jr 1987. No 4 Rush An Early Woodland Period Site in Northwest Georgia by W Dean Wood and R Jerald Ledbetter 1990. No 5 A Few Visits in Prehistory Data Recovery at 9RH18 Randolph County Georgia by Christopher T Espenshade 1993. No 6 The Pig Pen Site Archeological Investigations at 9RI158 Richmond County Georgia by R Jerald Ledbetter 1988. No 7 Data Recovery at Lovers Lane Phinizy Swamp and the Old Dike Sites Bobby Jones Expressway Extension Corridor. Augusta Georgia by Daniel T Elliott R Jerald Ledbetter and Elizabeth A Gordon 1994. No 8 The Victory Drive Site 9ME50 Muscogee County Georgia by R Jerald Ledbetter 1997. No 9 The Bull Creek Site 9ME1 Muscogee County Georgia by R Jerald Ledbetter 1997. No 10 An Archeological Survey of the Shoulderbone Tract Hancock County Georgia by Thomas J Pluckhahn 1997. No 11 Prehistory of the Stuckey Tract Bleckley County Georgia by Scot Keith 2006. No 12 Archeological and Historical Investigations at Battery Hamilton 9CH953 Chatham County Georgia by Chad O. Braley 2003, No 13 The Early Vegetable Tanning Industry in Georgia Archaeological Testing at the Clinton Tannery 09JO282 Jones. County Georgia by Daphne L Owens and Daniel E Battle 2008. No 14 The Late Archaic to Early Woodland Transition in Northwest Georgia Evidence for Terminal Archaic ca 1100 600. B C Period Occupation in the Region by Jerald Ledbetter Lisa D O Steen and Scott Jones 2009. No 15 A Look Into the Outlands The Cultural Landscape of the Dougherty Plain of Georgia by R Jeannine Windham. Johannes Loubser and Mark Swanson 2009, No 16 An Overview and Analysis of the Middle Archaic in Georgia by Sudha Shah and Thomas Whitley 2009. No 17 Bilbo 9CH4 and Delta 38JA23 Late Archaic and Early Woodland Shell Mounds at the Mouth of the Savannah River. by Morgan R Crook Jr 2009,Figures and Tables iv,Preface vii. Introduction 1,The Bilbo Site 9CH4 9,Previous Research at the Bilbo Site 9.
2001 Investigations 11,Summary and Discussion 21,The Delta Site 38JA23 29. Previous Research at the Delta Site 30,2006 07 Investigations 30. Human Remains 46,Faunal Analysis 47,Macrobotanical Analysis 56. Palynological Analysis 68,Summary and Discussion 76. Conclusions 81,Acknowledgements 87,References Cited 89.
Figures and Tables, Cover graphic adapted from a 1937 photograph of cypress swamp in the. Osceola National Forest by Bluford W Muir USDA NRCS PLANTS Database. 1 Satellite Image of the Lower Savannah River showing the Locations. of the Bilbo Delta Refuge and Second Refuge Archaeological Sites 1. 2 1757 Map showing Landscape and Approximate Locations of the Bilbo. and Delta Sites 3, 3 1780 Map showing Landscape and Approximate Locations of the Bilbo. and Delta Sites 4, 4 1864 Map showing Landscape and Approximate Locations of the Bilbo. and Delta Sites 5,5 Central Area of the Bilbo Site 9. 6 Satellite View of Modern Site Environment 9,7 Aerial Photo of the Bilbo Site circa 1957 10.
8 Haag s and Waring s Excavation Units Transposed over Waring s. Topographic Map of the Bilbo Site 11, 9 Archaeological Base Map of the Bilbo Site 2001 12. 10 Waring s Stratigraphic Block Profile at the Bilbo Site 13. 11 Haag s 1957 Profile of the Bilbo Site 14, 12 2001 Profile of Strata in Test Pit 16 at the Bilbo Site 15. 13 Profile of Test Pit 16 Student Pointing to Charred Debris at the. Base of the Shell and Top of Blue Clay 16, 14 Profile of the North and East Walls of Test Pit 14 17. 15 Decorated Pottery from the Bilbo Site 18, 16 Perforated Steatite Disks from Test Pit 14 150 160cm b d 18. 17 Examples of Chert Bifaces from various Excavated Contexts at Bilbo 18. 18 Examples of Identified Seeds from the 2001 Excavation 19. 19 Examples of Engraved Bone Pins 20,20 Leather Fragment from the Bilbo Site 21.
21 Generalized Cross Section of the Bilbo Shell Mound 23. 22 Reconstructed Late Mid Holocene Environmental Setting of the Bilbo Site 25. 23 Suggested Structural Form Associated with Shell Mound I 26. 24 Delta Site from Top of Dredge Spoil Area 2006 29. 25 Delta Site Interior 2006 29,26 Satellite View of the Delta Site 29. 27 1961 Aerial of Delta Site prior to Deposition of Dredge Spoil 29. 28 Topographic Base Map of the Delta Site 38JA23 31. 29 Profile of North Wall of Test Pit 1 showing Spoil and Shell Mound Strata. along with Core A B C and Bulk Sample 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Locations 33. 30 Test Pit 1 showing Faces of the South and West Walls 2006 34. 31 Test Pit 1 showing Portion of North Wall 2007 34. 32 Deptford Linear Check Stamped Deptford Check Stamped Deptford. Cord Marked Refuge Fine Incised Refuge Dentate Stamped 38. 33 Refuge Simple Stamped 39,34 Refuge Bold Simple Stamped 39. 35 St Simons Fiber Tempered Wilmington Heavy Cord Marked 40. 36 Abrader Abrader with Hone 40, 37 Fired Clay Lumps Amorphous Smoothed with Split Vine Impression 40. 38 Hammer Stones 40,39 Bone Pins Clay Bead 40, 40 Restored Portion of Refuge Bold Simple Stamped Pot 42. 41 Test Pit 2 showing Final Excavation 43,42 Test Pit 3 showing Southern Wall 44.
43 Excavation at Test Pit 3 44, 44 Profile of the East and South Walls of Test Pit 3 45. 45 Eastern Elliptio 51,46 Banded Mysterysnail 53,47 UNID Seed Fruit Taxon 1 57. 48 Members of the Sedge Family Cyperaceae recovered from. the Delta Site Assemblage 59, 49 Size Comparisons of Wild and Domestic Cucurbits 60. 50 Osmunda Core A 2 70,51 Chenopodiaceae Amaranthceae Core A 3 70. 52 Pinus Core A 6 70,53 Quercus Core A 4 70,54 Ambrosia Core A 3 70.
55 Woodwardia type Core A 4 70,56 Sphagnum Core A 9 70. 57 Tarsonemid mite Core A 4 70, 58 Palynomorphs detected in Core C 10 of Test Pit 1 74. 59 Palynomorphs detected in Core C 10 of Test Pit 1 75. 1 Bilbo Site Radiocarbon Analysis Results 17,2 Pottery and Steatite Test Pit 14 18. 3 Identified Plant Remains from the Bilbo Site 19,4 Identified Vertebrate Fauna 20. 5 Concordance for Stratigraphic Contexts at the Bilbo Site 22. 6 Oyster Samples Left Valves from Test Pit 16 25,7 Delta Site Radiocarbon Analysis Results 35.
8 Ceramic Analysis Test Pit 1 36,8 Ceramic Analysis Test Pit 1 Continued 37. 9 Ceramic Analysis Test Pit 2 44,10 Ceramic Analysis Test Pit 3 45. 11 Identified Fauna from the Delta Site 47, 12 Identified Vertebrate Fauna by Number of Bone Fragments. Test Pit 1 48, 13 Identified Vertebrate Fauna by Minimum Number of Individuals. Test Pit 1 49, 14 Vertebrate Fauna by Number of Bone Fragments Test Pit 3 50.
15 Vertebrate Fauna by Minimum Number of Individuals Test Pit 3 50. 16 Whole Screen Shell Sample Test Pit 1 250 260cm b d 52. 17 Whole Screen Shell Sample Test Pit 1 260 270cm b d 52. 18 Faunal Analysis Core C of Test Pit 1 54, 19 Oyster Harvest Periods from Impressed Odostome Analysis 55. 20 Oyster Community Analysis Results 56,21 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Samples 61. 22 1 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Data Raw Counts from. Test Pit 1 62, 22 2 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Data Raw Counts from. Test Pit 1 continued 63, 22 3 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Data Raw Counts from. Test Pit 1 continued 64, 22 4 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Data Raw Counts from.
Test Pit 1 continued 65, 22 5 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Data Raw Counts from. Test Pit 1 continued 66, 22 6 Delta Site Archaeobotanical Data Raw Counts from. Test Pit 1 concluded 67, Archaeological investigations at the Bilbo site 9CH4 were undertaken in 2001 by students. from the University of West Georgia UWG under the direction of Principal Investigator Dr. Morgan R Ray Crook Jr to assess the existing archaeological deposits in terms of integrity and. impacts from looting and intentional site vandalism During the work the Georgia Department of. Transportation GDOT facilitated Ray s activities with the City of Savannah and provided. assistance in any way possible GDOT s ongoing interest in the Bilbo site dates back to the 1980 s. when Bilbo and the ultimate avoidance of the site played a large role in the final design and. location of the Harry S Truman Parkway in Chatham County As part of GDOT s work in the. 1980 s steps were taken to curtail ongoing looting that had negatively impacted the archaeological. deposits at the Bilbo site So it was with open arms that GDOT supported UWG s 2001. investigation The 2001 study results provide a baseline for evaluating the integrity of the Bilbo. site s archaeological deposits But as successful as the study was it demonstrated a void in. archaeological knowledge and models about the Shell Mound Archaic on the Georgia coast. It is against this backdrop that the GDOT sponsored two field seasons 2006 and 2007 of. archaeological investigation at the Delta site 38JA23 in South Carolina located on property owned. by GDOT again utilizing students from UWG under the direction of Ray The goals of the study. were two fold First archaeological investigations were to provide an evaluation of the site s integrity. in terms of National Register of Historic Places NRHP eligibility heretofore unknown by GDOT. and secondly to provide an examination of the historical ecology associated with the Shell Mound. Archaic as it relates to firm archaeological context The archaeological fieldwork conducted by the. UWG team reflected creativity ingenuity and persistence in difficult field conditions The study. results equaled the methodology in intellectual vigor and produced data that provide a foundation. for understanding cultural lifeways and environmental adaptation during the late Mid Holocene on. the Georgia coast As with any good academic endeavor the investigation of this NRHP eligible. historic property generated further research avenues that need to be explored for a better. understanding of the Shell Mound Archaic, The study also produced several fulfilling side bars for GDOT that must be addressed. First the study included extensive coordination with federally recognized tribal governments While. many researchers and academics shy away from this duty the responsibility for consultation has. always been of paramount importance to the GDOT With consultation comes understanding and. new life experiences with our Native American partners and the following project was no. exception Secondly GDOT has a long tradition of supporting archaeological education and. activities especially those with a purpose to advance the careers of future archaeologists All the. work presented in this report was completed as part of field school training and education for. undergraduate and graduate students from the University of West Georgia The partnership. between the GDOT and UWG in creating training opportunities for aspiring archaeologists has. many years behind it but has never been more satisfying than in the present. The Georgia Department of Transportation is proud to publish Bilbo 9CH4 and Delta. 38JA23 Late Archaic and Early Woodland Shell Mounds at the Mouth of the Savannah River as. Report Number 17 in its Occasional Papers in Cultural Resource Management series. Staff Archaeologist,Georgia Department of Transportation.
Introduction, This report summarizes the results of archaeological investigations conducted as. No 9 The Bull Creek Site 9ME1 Muscogee County Georgia by R Jerald Ledbetter 1997 Archaeological investigations at the Bilbo site 9CH4 were undertaken in 2001 by students from the University of West Georgia UWG under the direction of Principal Investigator Dr Morgan R Ray Crook Jr to assess the existing archaeological deposits in terms of integrity and impacts from

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