BEATING RHETORIC RHETORICAL THEORY IN THE BEAT GENERATION

Beating Rhetoric Rhetorical Theory In The Beat Generation-PDF Download

  • Date:06 Nov 2020
  • Views:2
  • Downloads:0
  • Pages:438
  • Size:1.82 MB

Share Pdf : Beating Rhetoric Rhetorical Theory In The Beat Generation

Download and Preview : Beating Rhetoric Rhetorical Theory In The Beat Generation


Report CopyRight/DMCA Form For : Beating Rhetoric Rhetorical Theory In The Beat Generation


Transcription:

UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH,ARTS SCIENCES,This dissertation was presented. Stephen M Llano,It was defended on,December 4 2009. and approved by, Ronald J Zboray PhD Professor Department of Communication. John Lyne PhD Professor Department of Communication. Lester Olson PhD Professor Department of Communication. Peter Simonson Assistant Professor Department of Communication University of Colorado. Dissertation Advisor Ronald J Zboray PhD Professor of Communication. Copyright by Stephen M Llano, BEATING RHETORIC RHETORICAL THEORY IN THE BEAT GENERATION. Stephen M Llano PhD,University of Pittsburgh 2009, The beat generation has been examined as a social movement literary period and political.
statement from many different scholarly perspectives Through the method of rhetorical criticism. I tease out an implicit theory of rhetoric from the writings of the principal beat generation. founders namely Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac Offering a rhetorical read of their major. work along with analysis of their letters and journals I offer a theory of rhetoric from both. thinkers In the early chapters I discuss the history of poetic discourses and rhetoric to determine. the connection between literary texts and rhetorical theory I establish the rhetorical cultural and. social environment of the post war United States and its interpretation and assessment by both. Kerouac and Ginsberg I then establish linkages between Kerouac and the rhetorical sense of. kairos establishing his contribution to the beat theory by analyzing On the Road Kerouac s. contribution to beat rhetoric is developed through examination of the timely and appropriate. Next I turn attention to Allen Ginsberg and his poem Howl to demonstrate his implicit theory. that the limits of the human body are a rhetorical commonplace Ginsberg s contribution is. established as finding great power of rhetorical invention in the limits of the human being s. embodied condition In the final two sections I show applications of this rhetorical theory. through examining Diane Di Prima s Memoirs of a Beatnik and Amiri Baraka s Somebody. Blew Up America for elements of applied beat rhetorical theory concluding that elements of. the beat rhetoric are present in both,TABLE OF CONTENTS. 1 0 INTRODUCTION RHETORICAL BEATS BEAT RHETORIC 1,2 0 ASSESSING THE BEATS 31. 2 1 UNDERSTANDING JACK KEROUAC 32,2 2 ALLEN GINSBERG S SCHOLARLY IDENTITY 47. 2 3 APPROACHING THE BEAT GENERATION RHETORICALLY 55. 2 4 A BRIEF HISTORY OF POETICS AND RHETORIC 64,2 5 RHETORICAL CRITICISM SQUARE OR HIP 79. 2 6 CONCLUSION 84,3 0 THE RHETORICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE BEATS 85.
3 1 BEAT MOTIVES 87,3 2 COMMUNICATION DISCOURSE RHETORIC 100. 3 3 THE DISCURSIVE STEW OF THE 1950S 118,3 4 MASS CULTURE TROPE FOR COMMUNICATION 124. 3 5 CONCLUSION 136, 4 0 THE KAIROTIC RHETORIC OF JACK KEROUAC S ON THE ROAD 138. 4 1 THE RHETORICAL AND COMMUNICATIVE ENVIRONMENT OF. THE 50S 144, 4 2 KEROUAC S EXIGENCE AND THE COMMUNICATION PROBLEM 153. 4 3 KEROUAC S METHOD 163,4 4 THE PRODUCTION OF ON THE ROAD 166.
4 5 ON THE ROAD A COMPARATIVE AMERICAN RHETORIC 168. 4 6 TECHNOLOGY AND TECHN IN ROAD 213,4 7 CONCLUSION 227. 5 0 ALLEN GINSBERG S POETIC RHETORIC OF EMBODIMENT 230. 5 1 GINSBERG S RHETORICAL ENVIRONMENT 241, 5 2 GINSBERG THE POET OR GINSBERG THE THEORIST 244. 5 3 GINSBERG S KEY THEORETICAL TERMS 256,5 4 SEXUALITY IN GINSBERG S WORK 276. 5 5 BURKE AND GINSBERG BUCKING THE SYSTEM THROUGH,BURKING 288. 6 0 HOWL AND BEAT RHETORIC 296,6 1 PREVIOUS SCHOLARS ON HOWL 297.
6 2 BURKE POETRY AND THE SOCIOANAGOGIC CRITIC 305,6 3 COMPLICATING AN ALREADY COMPLICATED POEM. ANALYZING HOWL 310,6 4 CONCLUSION 330, 7 0 DIANE DI PRIMA AND THE GROTESQUE BEAT RHETORIC 331. 7 1 WOMEN IN THE FIFTIES 338,7 2 FEMINIST APPROACHES TO RHETORICAL THEORY 343. 7 3 NOTIONS OF CARNIVAL AND THE GROTESQUE 348, 7 4 CARNIVALISTIC ELEMENTS OF MEMOIRS AND BEAT RHETORIC. 7 5 CONCLUSION 371, 8 0 CONCLUSION TWENTY FIRST CENTURY BEAT RHETORIC 374.
8 1 AMIRI BARAKA AND BEAT RHETORIC 377,8 2 THE SEPTEMBER 11TH POEM 382. 8 3 SOMEBODY AS ALTERNATIVE RHETORIC 387,8 4 CONTAINING AND CONSTRAINING SOMEBODY 396. 8 5 CONCLUSION 409,BIBLIOGRAPHY 412,ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. Thank you to Peter Simonson for helping turn what was a basic idea into a well conceived. argument Thanks also to Ron Zboray who spent countless hours slowly teaching me what. quality scholarly research looks like and how to do it His care and attention are what make this. document shine To my other committee members John Lyne and Lester Olson thank you for. making the defense engaging challenging and pleasurable And thank you to my supportive. friends and colleagues in graduate studies at the University of Pittsburgh who listened to me. drone on about this project for hours and still gave me invaluable advice Michael Vicaro. Carleton Gholz David Seitz Michelle Gibbons Ethan Stoneman Brad Fest and Llana Carroll. 1 0 INTRODUCTION RHETORICAL BEATS BEAT RHETORIC, The singular force of the beat writers is manifest in the fact that they did not merely. reflect the audience of American Bohemia they substantially altered that audience and. in so doing they liberated and clarified motives until then only imperfectly realized The. intensity of reaction to their work indicates that the motives embodied in Kerouac s On. the Road and The Subterraneans strike some sensitive hidden nerve that is more. important than before the appearance of those works many had cared to admit 1. For Thomas Parkinson a Berkeley literature professor writing in 1961 the value of the. beat writers is rhetorical though he does not explicitly say so That is the single most important. aspect of them is that they altered the audience rather than reflected what the audience already. wanted Parkinson s question opens the beat writers to investigation using a rhetorical lens If. the beats touched on motives that were present yet unrealized it could be said that the beats. achieved one of the ultimate aims of rhetoric defined by Kenneth Burke as. consubstantiality 2, What is the rhetorical perspective Parkinson does not directly invoke rhetoric as such.
However Parkinson s approach considering the motives that the beat writers clarified in. their audience puts Parkinson s appreciation of the beats in line with Kenneth Burke s. appreciation of rhetoric Whether they represented an entire generation or a spasm of revulsion. the beat writers attained symbolic status as did the until then little remarked Bohemian. communities of New York s Greenwich Village and San Francisco s North Beach he writes. Thomas Parkinson The Beat Writers Phenomenon or Generation in Beat Down to Your Soul. ed Ann Charters New York Penguin Books 2001 458, Kenneth Burke A Rhetoric of Motives Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California. Press 1969 21, focusing on the beat writers as achieving a symbolic presence through their action of writing 3. Professor Parkinson s attribution of symbolic status to this group means they could stand in. synecdochally for groups of people who felt there was little place for them in contemporary. society As Kenneth Burke begins his investigation into the principles of rhetoric he examines. Milton s poem Sampson and concludes that the poem is best understood as literature for. use which could give pretexts for admitting a motive which if not so clothed or complicated. if confronted in its simplicity would have been inadmissible 4 The beat writers accomplish this. by offering poetic works that clothe and complicate or in Parkinson s term clarify the. imperfectly realized motives of the bohemians This symbolic appreciation is one way to think. about the beat writers as beat rhetors Burke s literature for use idea quickly develops into an. addendum to the classical traditional conception of rhetoric as mere persuasion based on rational. principles, The rhetorical perspective besides including motive and symbolic attribution also. considers audience as a central element Parkinson does so as well when he refers to the way the. media handled the beats When the San Francisco columnist Herb Caen dubbed the members. of current Bohemia beatniks the derisive appellation stuck Beatnik life became a subject of. general interest and that special nexus of jazz Buddhism homosexuality drugs and squalor was. graphed and discussed in a wide range of media that reached a large audience 5 Here Parkinson. argues that the beat writers have been established as a collection of the undesirable elements of. American society At the same time Parkinson attends to audience again perhaps hammering. Thomas Parkinson The Beat Writers 449,Burke Rhetoric 5. Parkinson The Beat Writers 449, home for his audience a persuasive reason that they should be studied as writers Audience like.
symbolic exchange is another way to think about the beat writers. Parkinson identifies the importance of the beat writers in articulating not only a vision. for their audience but the audience itself The two interpretations Parkinson raised above as to. whether the Beats are an entire generation that is the beat writers are the source of. inspiration toward radical politics or a spasm of revulsion a group that for a moment turned. totally against the center of its society s values is a question of evaluation Not an unusual. question at all when considering the value of literature But the way Parkinson approaches the. question s importance is through the audience For Parkinson the beat writers are worth careful. study since they exerted influence over nearly an entire generation and at the same time served. as symbols for that generation s attitude Parkinson s writing resonates with Kenneth Burke. who considers poetry symbolic action because it is the dancing of an attitude 6 For Burke. poetics is a type of action not description and it is the symbolic action of poetics that allows. humans to make be and do, Writing a half century later Jonah Raskin makes a similar claim about the work of Allen. The 1955 Six Gallery reading was bohemianism at its best It was something brave and. honest to borrow Tennessee Williams s phrase in the midst of a society that seemed. cowardly and insincere and it marked the start of the cultural revolution that would. sweep across America in the 1960s The Six Gallery reading was living proof that the. First Amendment hadn t been destroyed by McCarthyism and the committees that. investigated artists playwrights Hollywood directors and TV screenwriters In America. in the twentieth century there was no bigger bombshell than the Six Gallery reading 7. Kenneth Burke The Philosophy of Literary Form Studies in Symbolic Action Third ed. Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press 1973 8 9. Jonah Raskin American Scream Allen Ginsberg s Howl and the Making of the Beat. Generation Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press 2004 6 7. Although hyperbolic if considered from the historical perspective the potential for a rhetorical. reading is rather clear Raskin s hyperbole is possible only because he reads Ginsberg s poem as. a response Seen as part of a larger dialogue or argument with the values of society Ginsberg s. poem becomes a marker a similar articulation of a motive nobody seemed willing or able to. express until this moment, Reading Parkinson and Raskin together we find ample exigence for a rhetorical reading. of the beats The idea that the beats were valuable for putting into words a feeling attitude or. sensibility of the time indicates the presence of the rhetorical As Burke states Rhetoric as the. speaker s attempt to identify himself favorably with his audience then becomes so transformed. that the work may seem to have been written under an esthetic of pure expression without. regard for communicative appeal 8 Well written rhetoric may appear to be expression of an idea. or emotion that pre exists the moment of its constitution Rhetoric makes the communicative. appeal appear to be expression thereby increasing its persuasive appeal This is apparent in the. fact that two writers examining beat texts with fifty years between them arrive at the same sort of. opinion regarding the importance and power of the works they name or clarify something not. quite articulated among people but present, However Parkinson makes even further revision in the scope of the value of the beat. writers Not all beat writing is valuable Parkinson distinguishes the terms Beat and Beatnik. The term beat I take to be descriptive and its primary reference is to a group of writers. especially who participate in certain common attitudes and pursue common literary aims The. beatnik on the other hand is either not an artist or an incompetent and nonproductive one. Burke Rhetoric 37, He may write an occasional poem but he has no literary ambitions 9 The beat writers have. persuaded many to try to produce poetic texts Not many literary movements in history can be. evaluated on such a standard It might be important to examine the beat writers not as offering a. product poetry and literature for example and perhaps also offering ways of making. connections with words The beat writers influence might be in offering more than just good. texts but how to craft connection between human beings This indicates there might be an. implicit or latent theory of rhetoric within the beat texts. Parkinson s assessment of the beat writers is designed to draw the attention of the literary. through examining Diane Di Prima s and Amiri Baraka s Somebody Memoirs of a Beatnik Blew Up America for elements of applied beat rhetorical theory concluding that elements of the beat rhetoric are present in both BEATING RHETORIC RHETORICAL THEORY IN THE BEAT GENERATION Stephen M Llano PhD University of Pittsburgh 2009 v TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 0 INTRODUCTION RHETORICAL BEATS

Related Books