B A B Sc University of Calicut

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School of Distance Education,UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT. SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION,STUDY MATERIAL,IV SEMESTER. COMMON COURSE IN SANSKRIT, HISTORY OF SANSKRIT LITERATURE KERALA CULTURE TRANSLATION. Prepared by,Dr Sudha E K,Assistant Professor,Department of Sanskrit. Sree Krishna College,Scrutinised by,Sri K Jayanarayanan.
Associate Professor,Department of Sanskrit,Sree Kerala Varma College. Layout Settings,Computer Section SDE, History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 2. School of Distance Education,MODULE I 04 12,MODULE II 13 15. MODULE III 16 18,MODULE IV 19 30,MODULE V 31 34,MODULE VI 35 40. History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 3. School of Distance Education,EPICS IN SANSKRIT, Date Stages of Development Influence on later literature.
and poetic style,Introduction, Vedic literature is essentially religious but envisages all in the Universe Sanskrit. epic poetry falls under two main classes 1 The Itihasa legend Akhyana or Purana. forming one class which comprises of old stories legends and narratives and 2 the. Kavya or court epic or artificial epic constituting the other class The Mahabharata belongs. to the first category and the Ramayana belongs to the second. The Origin and form of the Ramayana, The Ramayana is the first ornate poetry composed by a single author Valmiki It. is essentially influenced the thought and poetry of later centuries in course of which new. matters were added to the original composition Ramayana literally the history of Rama. is the immortal poem of Valmiki Valmiki is also known as Bhargava or Pracetasa. The Ramayana consists of about 24000 verses divided into seven books called. Kandas Balakanda Ayodhyakanda Aranyakanda Kiskindhakanda Sundarakanda. Yuddhakanda and Uttarakanda It contains 500 sargas This was the first work written in. metre dealing with secular subject and hence it is called Adikavyam and its author Valmiki. is known as Adikavi It is said that Valmiki composed this work in 24000 verses using the. 24 letters of Gayatri mantra as the first syllable of the 24 verses at intervals of 1000. Valmiki s original name was Ratnakara He was a brigand and with the blessings. of Saptarsis Seven Munis he became a great saint by name Valmiki Once Narada narrated. the story of Rama to Valmiki and blessed him to reveal this story to the world The poetic. talent of the saint came outside in the form of the verse. On hearing this verse Lord Brahma appeared in front. of him and asked to compose Ramayana Blessed by Brahma with a perception of the. History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 4. School of Distance Education, events of Rama s history Valmiki wrote this poem and gave the names Ramayana Sitacarita. and Paulastyavadha He taught it to his pupils Lava and Kusa the sons of Rama who were. born and brought up in his hermitage while Sita was in banishment. Summary of the Ramayana, The Ramayana also mentions the story of the Kings of Surya dynasty to which. Rama belonged Dasaratha was a powerful and righteous king in this dynasty He ruled. over the Kingdom of Kosala Capital of Ayodhya His ancestors were Manu Iksvaku. Sagara Bhagiratha Raghu etc He had three wives Kausalya Kaikeyi and Sumitra He. had no sons Following the advice of Vasistha his family preceptor Kulaguru Dasratha. offered a sacrifice known as Putrakamesti with the leadership of the sage Rsyasrnga As. a consequence the king got four sons 1 Rama the eldest born of Kausalya 2 Bharata. born of Kaikeyi 3 Laksmana and 4 Satrughna born of Sumitra. The Kingdom of Videha capital of Mithila was to the east of the Kingdom of. Kosala It was at this time ruled by the saintly King Janaka who as he once for a holy. sacrifice preparing the ground with a plough came upon an infant girl and brought her up. as his own daughter She was Sita The girl grew up in the company of Urmila another. daugher of Janaka and of Mandavi and Srutakirti daughters of Janaka s brother Kusadhvaja. As Sita became of an age to be married Janaka instituted a Svayamvara whoever should. succeed in bending a mighty bow which Janaka had received from God Siva was to. marry the princess Many attempted but none succeeded. The arrival of the Great Sage Visvamitra to Ayodhya to accompany Rama for. Yagaraksa taking Rama and Laksmana to Mithila Sitasvayamvara the marriage of. Laksmana to Urmila Bharata to Mandavi and Satrghna to Srutakirti respectively the. collapse of Rama s Pattabhiseka and sending him to the forest by Kaikeyi entering Rama. Laksmana and Sita into the forest the kidnapping of Sita by Ravana alliance of Rama. with Sugriva the king of monkeys Hanuman s leap into Lanka across Indian Ocean the. battle between Rama and Ravana Rama killing Ravana are the main incidents of the. History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 5. School of Distance Education,Date and Stages of Development of the Ramayana.
It is said that Valmiki propagated the Ramayana through Lava and Kusa orally. Therefore it is assumed that he Ramayana might have been written before the invention. of writing The Mahabharata quotes Valmiki ie The Ramayana is before the Mahabharata. In the Ramayana the description of forests monkeys etc are seen abundantly This also. indicates that the Ramayana was composed before the Mahabharata It is assumed that. the Mahabharata was composed before 5th century B C Therefore the Ramayana must. have been completed at least before 6th century B C So many other evidences are there. All these evidences place the Ramayana to 6th century B C. Several studies have been made about the development of the Ramayana In the. case of the Mahabharata it is popularly believed that the Mahabharata was not written by. a single author at a time But in the case of the Ramayana this type of argument is not so. strong even though some exceptions are there Prof Jacobi reached the conclusion that. the Ramayana originally consisted of only five Kandas beginning with Ayodhyakanda and. ending with the coronation of Rama in Yuddhakanda Balakanda and Uttarakanda are later. additions A A Macdonell explains the abrupt beginning of the Ayodhyakanda by suggesting. that there were originally a few kandas at the beginning of the Ayodhyakanda and were. included in the newly added Balakanda, In spite of the strong reasoning of the Western critics it is possible to maintain. that all the seven Kandas of the Ramayana were composed by a single author Valmiki. Ancient Indian poets like Bhasa Kalidasa Bhavabhuti Dinnaga and the great Indian critic. Anandavardhanacarya have all accepted Bala and Uttarakandas as genuine parts of the. The influence of the Ramayana on later literature, The Ramayana is a highly popular epic which has become the property of the entire. Indian people and it is not an exaggeration if it is said that it has influenced more than any. other poem the thought and poetry of a nation for thousands of years It is very popular that. people are quite familiar with the characters and stories of the great epic According to. Indian concept Rama is the ideal prince the embodiment of all conceivable virtue and Sita. the ideal of conjugal love and fidelity the highest virtue of women Beginning with Asvaghosa. who composed the Buddhacarita on the model of the Ramayana and coming down to such. History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 6. School of Distance Education, later writers as Bhatti and Bhavabhuti we are amazed to observe the extent of influence of. the epic on them and their poetical creation The folklore and vernacular literature of the. various provinces have been deeply influenced by the story of the Ramayana The works. like Bhasa s dramas Kalidasa s Raghuvamsa Bhavabhuti s Uttararamacarita are the classics. in Sanskrit literature based on the story of the Ramayana. Several versions of the Ramayana have also been come Vasistha Ramayana also. called Jaina Vasistha is said to have been composed by Valmiki himself as an appendix to. the Ramayana and originally taught by Vasistha to Rama Adbhuta Ramayana also attributed. to Valmiki Adhyatma Ramayana is an extract from the Brahmandapurana Mula Ramayana. and Ananda Ramayana describe the importance of Hanuman and is read much by the. followers of Sri Madhva, Many commentaries have also been written on the Ramayana The most well. known commentary is the Bhusanam of Govindaraja Valmikihrdayam is a commentary. by Ahobala Dharmakutam is splendid critique on the Ramayana by Tryambaka Makhin. Ramayananvayi is a commentary by Rangacarya Ramayanatatvadipika familiarly known. as Tirthiyam is a commentary by Mahesatirtha Ramayanadipika is a commentary by. Vidyanatha Diksita Another is Sarvarthasara of Venkatesvara Caturarthi is an anonymous. commentary giving four meanings to several important verses. Ramayanasarasangraha is an exposition of stray verses by Varadaraja. Ramayanarthaprakasika is a running discussion on certain minor incidents of the story of. the Ramayana by Venkata Ramayanakathavimarsa is a short narrative of the Ramayana. The Mahabharata, The Mahabharata is the earliest and the chief representative of the Itihasa Purana.
class Mahabharata is mainly in the sloka or Anustup metre It contains certain portions. mainly composed in Upajati and Vamsastha metre and it also presents some old prose. Veda Vyasa is believed to be the author of the Mahabharata He was the son of. Parasara and Satyavati His name was Krsna and he had the appellation Dvaipayana because. soon after birth he was abandoned by his unmarried mother in a dvipa island He. compiled the Vedas and was known as Vyasa, History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 7. School of Distance Education,Structure and contents of the Mahabharata. The Mahabharata in its present form contains more than a lakh of verses and it is the. longest poem ever composed in literary history Vyasa wrote this work and taught his. disciple Vysampayana who who narrates it to Janamejaya son of Pariksit at his Sarpayaga. Ugrasravas the Suta later on narrated it to Saunaka and others in Naimisaranya It is a. mixture of epic ancient legends and didactic stories with predominance given to Santa. Rasa divided into eighteen books or Parvas with a supplement called Harivamsa as the. 19th book The eighteen Parvas are 1 Adiparva 2 Sabhaparva 3 Vanaparva 4 Virataparva. 5 Udyogaparva 6 Bhismaparva 7 Dronaparva 8 Karnaparva 9 Salyaparva 10 Saptikaparva. 11 Striparva 12 Santiparva 13 Anusanaparva 14 Asvamedhaparva 15 Asramavasikaparva. 16 Mausalaparva 17 Mahaprasthanaparva and 18 Svargarohanaparva All these eighteen. parvas are not of equal length Each parva is again sub divided into chapters called. The supplementary Harivamsa deals with Krsna s family history It contains more. than 16 000 verses and is divided into three sections 1 Krsna s ancestors and his. birth 2 His sports and exploits and 3 The corruption of Kaliyuga. The subject matter of the Mahabharata can be analysed into three classes 1 The Pandava. Story 2 Ancient stories and legends and 3 Didactic and ethical sermons. The summary of the story of the Mahabharata, Santanu the old king of Hastinapura died leaving two sons Bhisma who had. taken a vow of celibacy and a younger prince Vicitravirya who became king This prince. in his turn leaving two sons Dhrtarastra who was blind and and Pandu who ascended. the throne Pandu died leaving five sons called Pandavas who are the heroes of the epic. Dhrtarastra remained virtually the king of Hastinapura and he had one hundred and one. children hundred sons known as Kauravas and one daughter Dussala Bhisma a renowned. warrior remained the chief councilor of the state Yudhisthira the eldest of the Pandavas. never became much of a warrior but became well versed in the religious learning of the. age and is the most righteous character in the epic Bhima the second learnt to use the. club and was renowned for his gigantic size and giant strength The third Arjuna excelled. all other princes in the skill of arms and aroused the jealousy and hatred of the Kauravas. even in their boyhood Nakula the fourth learned to tame horses and Sahadeva the fifth. History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture Translation 8. School of Distance Education, became proficient in astronomy Duryodhana the eldest son of Dhrtarastra was proficient. in the use of the club and was a rival to Bhima Karna was the son of Kunti from the Sun. before her marriage and he was brought up by a chariot driver Suta But Kunti does not. reveal this to the Pandavas and hence they do not know that Karna is their elder brother. Not only that whenever they get a chance they used to insult Karna also Duryodhana. tactfully made Karna his friend seeing that he will be a right rival for Arjuna Karna is a. splendid character in the Mahabharata, The time had arrived for Dhrtarastra to name a Yuvaraja ie or a prince who.
would reign during his old age The claim of Yudhisthira to the throne of his father could. not be gainsaid and he was appointed Yuvaraja But the proud Duryodhana rebelled against. the arrangement and the old monarch had to yield and sent the five Pandavas in exile to. Varanavata The vengeance of Duryodhana pursued them there and the house where the. Pandavas lived was burnt to ashes The Pandavas and their mother escaped by an. underground passage and for a long time roamed about disguised as Bra. 6 School of Distance Education History of Sanskrit Literautre Kerala Culture amp Translation Date and Stages of Development of the Ramayana Date It is said that Valmiki propagated the Ramayana through Lava and Kusa orally

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