Aviation hazards from volcanoes the state of the science

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Nat Hazards, inherent unpredictability of volcanic eruptions make this relatively new volcanic hazard a. significant threat to society, There has been a series of symposia and workshops addressing the problem of volcanic. hazards to aviation the first one of these was held in Seattle Washington in 1991 following. the major eruption of Pinatubo The papers from that symposium were published by the. USGS Casadevall 1994a Thirteen years later a second symposium was held The 2nd. International Conference on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety OFCM 2004 in Alex. andria Virginia USA In between these meetings an important reference work was. published in the Encyclopedia of Volcanoes by Miller and Casadevall 2000 and several. regional and topical meetings were held in Australia Japan Alaska and France The focus. of these meetings has always been on improving ways to help aviation avoid hazardous. volcanic clouds The current operational regime for disseminating volcanic ash hazard. warnings to aviation divides the world into nine regions see Fig 1 each with a Volcanic. Ash Advisory Centre VAAC sited within a national meteorological agency Since the. governance of warnings for other aviation hazards e g turbulence severe weather icing. falls within the responsibility of meteorological agencies it is natural and appropriate that. volcanic hazard warnings reside there too, This Special Issue represents a scholarly attempt to describe and synthesise our current. knowledge concerning the threat of volcanic hazards on aviation and grew out of a Vol. canic Ash and Aviation Workshop held in the volcanic region of Rotorua New Zealand in. March 2007 The meeting was organised by the World Meteorological Organisation. WMO in conjunction with the International Civil Aviation Organisation ICAO The. workshop brought together representatives from the aviation industry government avia. tion authorities ICAO FAA and the CAA volcanological and geological agencies e g. the USGS and academics to discuss and report on progress with methods and procedures. aimed at assisting aviation in the avoidance of volcanic hazards. The major hazard from volcanic eruptions to aviation is volcanic ash and this was first. properly recognised and documented following a well publicised incident involving a. British Airways jet and a volcanic cloud from an eruption of Galunggung volcano in. Indonesia in 1982 The aircraft lost power to all engines and reportedly dropped more than. 12 000 feet before power could be restored to three engines and an emergency landing. made at Jakarta At the time the crew and passengers had no idea what had caused this. nearly catastrophic event Examination of the engines and air frame later confirmed that. the aircraft had entered an ash cloud The aircraft radar visual systems and conventional. meteorological analyses had all failed to warn the aircraft of the impending danger. Johnson and Casadevall 1994 Another major incident involving a KLM 747 jet en route. from Amsterdam to Anchorage Alaska occurred in 1989 This aircraft encountered an ash. cloud from Redoubt volcano Despite knowledge of the eruption reports of the locations of. the ash clouds and procedures in place for avoidance the aircraft suffered loss of engine. power and engine damage costing many millions of dollars Casadevall 1994b More than. 40 separate aviation incidents occurred during the Pinatubo eruptions in June 1991. Casadevall et al 1996 Events like these while still relatively rare caused sufficient. alarm to stimulate the research community into thinking about and devising ways to detect. ash clouds They also stimulated government agencies and aviation authorities into. developing a global warning system based on best practice use of technology and a. universally accepted set of procedures and advisories to follow in the event of an encounter. with an ash cloud, The nature of the problem can be seen from Fig 2 which shows the distribution of. Holocene volcanoes and a list of the most recent volcanoes that have erupted causing. Nat Hazards, Fig 1 Map showing the regions of responsibility of the nine Volcanic Ash Advisory Centres VAACs.
Nat Hazards, Fig 2 Locations of Holocene volcanoes red triangles and the most recent volcanoes that have emitted. ash and gas causing aviation problems based on the study of Guffant et al 2004 and ICAO 2001 The. years when an aviation incident occurred are indicated for each volcano. Nat Hazards, problems to aviation an update based on the study of Guffanti et al 2004 The problem. stems from the inherently unpredictable nature of volcanic activity the ability of the. earth s wind circulation systems to spread ash and gas over large distances quickly and the. difficulty associated with managing the highly complex and vital aviation business Of. prime importance is the protection of lives but for aviation to be cost effective and. profitable it is also important for the industry to mange risks and seek economical solu. tions Thus it is not practical for example to ground aircraft because of the real or. envisaged threat of a volcanic eruption Re routing is a more sensible action but this. carries an economic cost and a strategy must be developed by each carrier to manage risk. and weigh this against safety concerns and the economic cost The hazard to aviation is not. only confined to air traffic Significant danger and concomitant cost occur from ash fall at. airports and on runways in regions vulnerable to volcanic activity Fig 3. There are nine articles in this Special Issue Three articles concentrate on the regional. responses and preparedness to volcanic hazards in Russia Neal in New Zealand and SW. Pacific Scott and in the USA Albersheim and Guffanti One article Guffanti et al. focusses on the hazard to airports showing how this is a significant and growing problem. all over the world with more than 100 airports at risk from volcanic hazards The article by. Prata reviews remote sensing techniques for detecting ash clouds describes the successes. and problems and looks into the future to assess the risk to global air traffic in an era of. increasing commercial travel Carn et al discusses the state of the art of satellite tracking. SO2 emissions from volcanoes highlighting the measurements from the Ozone Monitoring. Instrument OMI a new addition in the arsenal of sensors now being applied to the. detection of volcanic clouds Visualisation of dispersion model and satellite data is of great. importance in communicating accurately and efficiently the spatial structure of volcanic. hazards Webley et al show how this can be done using the latest methods in computer. animation utilising Virtual Globes and Google Earth There are two articles that deal with. the complexities of ash cloud dynamics Rose and Durrant study the fallout from the major. Fig 3 Quito airport after ash fall from Gua Gua Pichincha volcano. Nat Hazards, eruption of El Chicho n in 1982 The existence of fine particles in volcanic eruption clouds. constitutes the main hazard to jet aircraft and so the processes affecting the fate of these. particles are of great interest Due to convective currents in clouds and nucleation of ice by. fine ash many small particles 62 lm in diameter fall out sooner than otherwise The. final article by Tupper et al investigates the eruption height and subsequent ash fallout. using a high resolution atmospheric model specifically designed to simulate the behaviour. of erupting volcanic columns Important inferences on the effects of hydrometeors on fine. ash are drawn from the study with repercussions for remote sensing of ash clouds. The articles in this Special Issue cover many of the important topics associated with the. volcanic ash aviation hazard and provide in one place a comprehensive resource describing. the state of the science,References, Baxter P 2005 Human impacts of volcanoes In Mart J Ernst GGJ eds Volcanoes and the environment. Cambridge University Press Cambridge pp 273 303, Blong RJ 1984 Volcanic hazards a sourcebook on the effects of eruptions Academic Press Sydney.
Casadevall TJ eds 1994a Volcanic ash and aviation safety In Proceedings of the first international. symposium Seattle Washington July 1991 U S Geological Survey Bulletin B 2047 pp 450. http www dggs dnr state ak us pubs pubs reqtype citation ID 376. Casadevall TJ 1994b The 1989 1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano Alaska impacts on aircraft operations. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62 301 316, Casadevall TJ Delos Reyes PJ Schneider DJ 1996 The 1991 Pinatubo eruptions and their effects on. aircraft operations In Newhall CG Punongbayan RS eds Fire and Mud eruptions and lahars of. Mount Pinatubo Philippines Philippines Institute of Volcanology and Seismology University of. Washington Press Quezon City Seattle pp 625 636, ESCAP 2005 Review of developments in transport in Asia and the Pacific 2005 United Nations Publi. cation No E 06 II F 9 ST ESCAP 2392 172 pp, Etienne R 1992 Pompeii the day a city died Harry N Abrams Inc Thames and Hudson Ltd New York. London 215 pp, Fisher RV Heiken G 1982 Mt Pele e Martinique May 8 and 20 1902 pyroclastic flows and surges. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 13 339 371, Guffanti M Casadevall TJ Mayberry G 2004 Reducing encounters of aircraft with volcanic ash clouds.
In Second international conference on volcanic ash and aviation safety Alexandria Virginia USA pp. International Civil Aviation Organization 2001 Manual on volcanic ash radioactive material and toxic. chemical clouds ICAO Doc 9766 AN 954 Montreal pp I 2 6 I 2 7. Johnson RW Casadevall TJ 1994 Aviation safety and volcanic ash clouds in the Indonesia Australia. region In First international symposium on volcanic ash and aviation safety Seattle Washington. USA pp 191 197, Miller TP Casadevall TJ 2000 Volcanic ash hazards to aviation In Sigurdsson H ed Encyclopedia of. Volcanoes Academic Press San Diego pp 915 930, OFCM 2004 Proceedings of 2nd international conference on volcanic ash and aviation safety Alexandria. Virginia USA 21 24 June 2004 U S Department of Commerce National Oceanic and Atmospheric. Administration http www ofcm gov ICVAAS Proceedings2004 ICVAAS2004 Proceedings htm. Self S Rampino MR 1981 The 1883 Krakatau eruption Nature 294 699 704. Thordarson T Self S Okarsson N 1996 Sulfur chlorine and fluorine degassing and atmospheric loading. by the 1783 1784 AD Laki Skafta r Fires eruption in Iceland Bull Volcanol 58 205 225. Aviation hazards from volcanoes the state of the science A J Prata A Tupper Received 22 April 2009 Accepted 22 April 2009 Springer Science Business Media B V 2009 The hazards wrought on society by volcanoes have been studied discussed and reported extensively Danger from volcanoes can occur on the land on the sea and as this Special Issue highlights in the air as well The great

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