Aqueous Solutions Old Dominion University

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A Solvent Ions in Aqueous Solution,Ionic Theory of Solutions. retains its phase if different from the Some molecular compounds dissolve but do. solute not dissociate into ions,is present in greater amount if the same. C6 H12O 6 s glucose C6 H12O 6 aq,phase as the solute. These compounds are referred to as,nonelectrolytes They dissolve in water to give. a nonconducting solution,Figure 4 2 Polar water molecules.
interact with the positive and negative, Ions in Aqueous Solution ions of a salt assisting in the dissolving. Ionic Theory of Solutions,Many ionic compounds dissociate into. independent ions when dissolved in water,NaCl s Na aq Cl aq. These compounds that freely dissociate into,independent ions in aqueous solution are called. electrolytes,Their aqueous solutions are capable of conducting.
an electric current,Figure 4 5 When solid NaCl dissolves. the Na and Cl ions are randomly Electrolytes, dispersed in the water Strong conduct current efficiently. Weak conduct only a small current,vinegar tap water. Non no current flows,pure water sugar solution, Ions in solution conduct electricity Strong electrolytes in. solution conduct electricity,Figure 4 4,Electrical Ions in Aqueous Solution.
conductivity Ionic Theory of Solutions, of aqueous Electrolytes are substances that dissolve in. water to give an electrically conducting,Thus in general ionic solids that dissolve in. water are electrolytes,Some molecular compounds such as acids. also dissociate in aqueous solution and are,considered electrolytes. HCl aq H aq Cl aq,Figure 4 6,HCl aq is Acids,Strong acids dissociate completely to.
completely produce H in solution,hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. Weak acids dissociate to a slight extent to,give H in solution. acetic and formic acid,Figure 4 8,Acetic acid Bases. exists in water Strong bases react completely with water to. mostly as give OH ions,undissociated,molecules Only sodium hydroxide. percentage of the Weak bases react only slightly with water. molecules are to give OH ions,Figure 4 7,An aqueous Ions in Aqueous Solution.
Ionic Theory of Solutions,solution of Strong and weak electrolytes. A weak electrolyte is an electrolyte that, hydroxide dissolves in water to give a relatively small. percentage of ions,NH3 g H O l NH OH aq,Most soluble molecular compounds are either. nonelectrolytes or weak electrolytes,4 9 The Ions in Aqueous Solution. reaction Ionic Theory of Solutions Summary,In summary substances that dissolve in water.
of NH3 in are either electrolytes or nonelectrolytes. water Nonelectrolytes form nonconducting solutions. because they dissolve as molecules,Electrolytes form conducting solutions because. they dissolve as ions,Ions in Aqueous Solution Working with Solutions. Ionic Theory of Solutions Summary Molar Concentration. Electrolytes can be strong or weak Molar concentration or molarity M is. defined as the moles of solute dissolved in,Almost all ionic substances that dissolve are. strong electrolytes one liter cubic decimeter of solution. moles of solute,Molecular substances that dissolve are either. nonelectrolytes or weak electrolytes,Molarity M,liters of solution.
Common Terms of Solution,Molarity Concentration,Molarity M moles of solute per volume of. solution in liters Stock routinely used solutions prepared in. concentrated form, moles of solute Concentrated relatively large ratio of solute. M molarity,liters of solution to solvent 5 0 M NaCl. 6 moles of HCl Dilute relatively small ratio of solute to. 2 liters of solution solvent 0 01 M NaCl,Figure 4 11. Working with Solutions a A measuring,pipet is graduated.
and can be used to,The majority of chemical reactions. measure various, discussed here occur in aqueous solution volumes of liquid. accurately,When you run reactions in liquid solutions it is. b a volumetric,convenient to dispense the amounts of reactants. transfer pipet,by measuring out volumes of reactant solutions.
is designed to,measure one,volume accurately,Figure 4 10 Steps involved in. the preparation of a standard Working with Solutions. Molar Concentration,aqueous solution,When we dissolve a substance in a liquid. we call the substance the solute and the,liquid the solvent. The general term concentration refers to the,quantity of solute in a standard quantity of. Working with Solutions, Working with Solutions How many moles of Cl are in 1 00 L of.
Molar Concentration 1 36 M FeCl3 solution,Let s try an example. A sample of 0 0341 mol iron III chloride 1 36 moles FeCl3 x 3 moles Cl x 1 00 L soln 4 08 moles Cl. FeCl3 was dissolved in water to give 25 0 mL 1 00 L soln 1 mole FeCl3. of solution What is the molarity of the,moles of FeCl 3 FeCl3 s Fe3 aq 3 Cl aq. Since molarity,liters of solution H2O,0 0341 mole of FeCl 3. then M 1 36 M FeCl 3,0 0250 liter of solution,Working with Solutions. From the equation moles of solute Molarity,Working with Solutions.
Diluting Solutions,Liters of solution,The molarity of a solution and its volume. are inversely proportional Therefore,Moles M or rearranging L x M moles. adding water makes the solution less,concentrated, How many moles of NaCl are in 25 0 ml of 0 100 M This inverse relationship takes the form of. Moles Moles,NaCl solution M i Vi M f V f, First convert ml to L 25 0 ml x 10 3 L ml 0 0250 ml So as water is added increasing the final volume. 0 0250 L soln 0 100 moles NaCl L soln 0 00250 moles Vf the final molarity Mf decreases. Figure 4 12 Dilution Procedure, How many liters of 0 100 M HCl will be needed a About 100 mL of water is added to a 500 mL flask.
to prepare 0 500 L of 0 0750 M HCl b A measuring pipet is then used to transfer 375 of 0 100 M. HCl solution to a volumetric flask, Use MiVi MfVf c Water is added to the flask to the calibration mark. We want to solve for Vi d The resulting solution is 0 0750 M HCl. Mi 0 100 M HCl,Mf 0 0750 M HCl,Always add,Vf 0 500 L HCl acids to water. to prevent,Solving the equation for Vi violent boiling. Vi MfVf Mi 0 0750 M x 0 500 L 0 100 M, Types of Solution Reactions Ions in Aqueous Solution. Precipitation reactions Molecular and Ionic Equations. AgNO3 aq NaCl aq AgCl s A molecular equation is one in which the. NaNO3 aq reactants and products are written as if they. were molecules even though they may, Acid base reactions actually exist in solution as ions.
NaOH aq HCl aq NaCl aq H2O l,Ca OH 2 aq Na2CO3 aq CaCO 3 s 2NaOH aq. Oxidation reduction reactions,Note that Ca OH 2 Na2CO3 and NaOH are all. Fe2O3 s 2 Al s 2 Fe s Al2O3 s soluble compounds but CaCO3 is not. Simple Rules for Solubility,Ions in Aqueous Solution. 1 Most nitrate NO3 salts are soluble Molecular and Ionic Equations. 2 Most alkali group 1A salts and NH4 are soluble An ionic equation however represents. 3 Most Cl Br and I salts are soluble NOT Ag Pb2 Hg22. strong electrolytes as separate independent, 4 Most sulfate salts are soluble NOT BaSO4 PbSO4 HgSO4. CaSO4 ions This is a more accurate representation, 5 Most OH salts are only slightly soluble NaOH KOH are of the way electrolytes behave in solution.
soluble Ba OH 2 Ca OH 2 are marginally soluble 2, 6 Most S2 CO32 CrO42 PO43 salts are only slightly soluble Ca 2 aq 2OH aq 2Na aq CO 3 aq. CaCO 3 s 2Na aq 2OH aq,Ions in Aqueous Solution Ions in Aqueous Solution. Molecular and Ionic Equations Molecular and Ionic Equations. Complete and net ionic equations Complete and net ionic equations. A complete ionic equation is a chemical A net ionic equation is a chemical equation. equation in which strong electrolytes such as from which the spectator ions have been. soluble ionic compounds are written as removed, separate ions in solution A spectator ion is an ion in an ionic equation. Ca NO 3 2 aq K 2 CO 3 aq CaCO 3 s 2 KNO 3 aq that does not take part in the reaction. strong strong insoluble strong 2,Ca 2 aq 2 NO 3 aq 2 K aq CO 3 aq. Ca 2 aq 2NO 3 aq 2K aq CO 3 aq,CaCO3 s 2K aq 2NO 3 aq.
CaCO 3 s 2K aq 2NO 3 aq,Ions in Aqueous Solution Ions in Aqueous Solution. Molecular and Ionic Equations Molecular and Ionic Equations. Complete and net ionic equations Complete and net ionic equations. Separating the strong electrolytes into separate Eliminating the spectator ions results in the net. ions we obtain the complete ionic equation ionic equation. 2H aq 2NO 3 aq Mg OH 2 s 2H aq 2NO 3 aq Mg OH 2 s,2H 2O l Mg 2 aq 2NO 3 aq 2H 2O l Mg 2 aq 2NO 3 aq. Note that the nitrate ions did not participate in 2H aq Mg OH 2 s 2H 2O l Mg 2 aq. the reaction These are spectator ions,This equation represents the essential reaction. Figure 4 16,Precipitation of,silver chloride by,mixing solutions. of silver nitrate,and potassium,chloride The,ions remain.
in solution,Figure 4 17 The reaction of, KCl aq with AgNO3 to form Describing Reactions in Solution. AgCl s 1 Molecular equation reactants and,products as compounds. AgNO3 aq KCl aq AgCl s KNO3 aq,2 Complete ionic equation all strong. electrolytes shown as ions,Ag aq NO3 aq K aq Cl aq. AgCl s K aq NO3 aq, Describing Reactions in Solution Types of Chemical Reactions.
Acid Base Reactions,The Arrhenius Concept, 3 Net ionic equation show only The Arrhenius concept defines acids as. components that actually react substances that produce hydrogen ions H. Ag aq Cl aq AgCl s when dissolved in water,An example is nitric acid HNO3 a molecular. K and NO3 are spectator ions substance that dissolves in water to give H and. H aq NO 3 aq, Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions. Acid Base Reactions Acid Base Reactions,The Arrhenius Concept The Arrhenius Concept. The Arrhenius concept defines bases as The molecular substance ammonia NH3 is a. substances that produce hydroxide ions OH base in the Arrhenius view. when dissolved in water, An example is sodium hydroxide NaOH an NH 3 aq H 2O l NH 4 aq OH aq.
ionic substance that dissolves in water to give, sodium ions and hydroxide ions because it yields hydroxide ions when it reacts. with water,Na aq OH aq, Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions. Acid Base Reactions Acid Base Reactions, The Br nsted Lowry Concept The Br nsted Lowry Concept. The Br nsted Lowry concept of acids and The Br nsted Lowry concept defines an acid. bases involves the transfer of a proton H as the species molecule or ion that donates a. from the acid to the base proton H to another species in a proton. In this view acid base reactions are proton transfer reaction. transfer reactions A base is defined as the species molecule or. ion that accepts the proton H in a proton,transfer reaction. Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions. Acid Base Reactions Acid Base Reactions, The Br nsted Lowry Concept The Br nsted Lowry Concept.
In the reaction of ammonia with water The H aq ion associates itself with water to form. NH 3 aq H 2O l NH 4 aq OH aq,H aq H 2O l H 3O aq,H This mode of transportation for the H ion is. the H2O molecule is the acid because it donates a called the hydronium ion. proton The NH3 molecule is a base because it accepts. Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions. Acid Base Reactions Acid Base Reactions, The Br nsted Lowry Concept In summary the Arrhenius concept and the. The dissolution of nitric acid HNO3 in water is Br nsted Lowry concept are essentially the. therefore a proton transfer reaction same in aqueous solution. The Arrhenius concept,HNO 3 aq H 2O l NO 3 aq H 3O aq. acid proton H donor,H base hydroxide ion OH donor,where HNO3 is an acid proton donor and H2O is a. base proton acceptor, Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions.
Acid Base Reactions Acid Base Reactions, In summary the Arrhenius concept and the Strong and Weak Acids and Bases. Br nsted Lowry concept are essentially the A strong acid is an acid that ionizes completely. same in aqueous solution in water it is a strong electrolyte. The Br nsted Lowry concept,HNO 3 aq H 2O l NO 3 aq H 3O aq. acid proton H donor, base proton H acceptor HCl aq H 2O l Cl aq H 3O aq. Table 4 3 lists the common strong acids,Types of Chemical Reactions. Acid Base Reactions,Strong and Weak Acids and Bases.
A strong base is a base that is present entirely,as ions one of which is OH it is a strong. electrolyte,Na aq OH aq,The hydroxides of Group IA and IIA. elements except for beryllium hydroxide are,strong bases see Table 4 3 Return to Slide 43. Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions. Acid Base Reactions Acid Base Reactions, Strong and Weak Acids and Bases Strong and Weak Acids and Bases. You will find it important to be able to identify A weak acid is an acid that only partially. an acid or base as strong or weak ionizes in water it is a weak electrolyte. When you write an ionic equation strong acids The hydrogen cyanide molecule HCN reacts. and bases are represented as separate ions with water to produce a small percentage of. Weak acids and bases are represented as ions in solution. undissociated molecules in ionic equations CN aq H O aq. HCN aq H 2O l 3, Types of Chemical Reactions Types of Chemical Reactions.
conductivity of aqueous solutions Thus in general ionic solids that dissolve in water are electrolytes Some molecular compounds such as acids also dissociate in aqueous solution and are considered electrolytes Ions in Aqueous Solution Electrolytes are substances that dissolve in water to give an electrically conducting solution

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