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AP Physics 1 Investigation 1,Real World Application. Kinematics is present in many aspects of students lives such as driving or. riding in automobiles and the sports they play Driving involves acceleration. in linear motion Even the timing of traffic lights depends on kinematics in. order to keep traffic flowing efficiently civil engineers need to time red lights at. sequential cross streets so that cars aren t stopped at each light and on roads. with higher speed limits they must extend the duration time of yellow lights. so that drivers are able to stop safely before the light turns red Examples of. kinematics in sports include cross country running which involves constant. speed motion distance and displacement and the motion of a volleyball which. can be approximated using projectile motion,Inquiry Overview. This multipart inquiry based investigation introduces students to concepts in. kinematics in one and two dimensions Students perform three guided inquiry. AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS, investigations that involve the study of constant velocity Part I constant. acceleration Part II and projectile motion Part III which simultaneously. involves constant velocity horizontally and constant acceleration vertically. Through guided inquiry students are provided with a track that includes an. inclined section and a horizontal section The students are tasked to determine. if the motion on the horizontal section is constant velocity and if the motion on. the inclined section is constant acceleration They are then asked to determine. how the initial velocity of the ball in projectile motion affects its horizontal. motion from the time it leaves the track until it lands on the ground. Connections to the AP Physics 1,Curriculum Framework. Big Idea 3 The interactions of an object with other objects can be described. Enduring Understanding Learning Objectives, 3A All forces share certain 3 A 1 1 The student is able to express the motion of an.

common characteristics when object using narrative mathematical and graphical. considered by observers in representations Science Practices 1 5 2 1 and 2 2. inertial reference frames, 3 A 1 2 The student is able to design an experimental. investigation of the motion of an object Science,Practice 4 2. 3 A 1 3 The student is able to analyze experimental data. describing the motion of an object and is able to express. the results of the analysis using narrative mathematical. and graphical representations Science Practice 5 1. note In addition to those listed in the learning objectives above Science. Practice 4 3 is also addressed in this investigation. 46 Table of Contents,2015 The College Board,1D and 2D Kinematics. Skills and Practices Taught Emphasized,in This Investigation. Science Practices Activities, 1 5 The student can re express Students use data from the different parts.

key elements of natural of the investigation to create graphs of the. phenomena across multiple motions and write equations that relate to those. representations in the domain motions as part of the analysis of their lab. 2 1 The student can justify the Students select appropriate equations to describe the ball s. selection of a mathematical motion in either constant velocity constant acceleration. routine to solve problems or projectile motion as part of the analysis of the lab. 2 2 The student can apply Students use data they have collected in the. mathematical routines to appropriate equations they also construct graphs. quantities that describe from data to describe various motions. natural phenomena,AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS, 4 2 The student can design a plan Student groups using the equipment provided design. for collecting data to answer a a plan to collect enough data to plot the motions and to. particular scientific question make calculations related to the motions enabling them. to determine which parts of the motion are constant. velocity constant acceleration or projectile motion. 4 3 The student can collect Students collect displacement and time measurements. data to answer a particular to plot graphs of position vs time or velocity vs time. scientific question, 5 1 The student can analyze data to Students analyze the data they gather to make. identify patterns or relationships calculations and graphs to determine which parts of. the motion are constant velocity constant acceleration. or projectile motion For example they use the slope. of the position time graph to determine velocity,and compare that to the velocity time graph and. calculations for the same part of the motion, note Students should be keeping artifacts lab notebook portfolio etc that. may be used as evidence when trying to get lab credit at some institutions. Equipment and Materials,Per lab group two students.

Ramp attached to a horizontal track see below for one possible way to. construct a ramp if you choose a different type of track make certain that the. steel ball follows a straight line path and does not veer off the track as this will. make data collection impossible,Meterstick,Steel ball 1 5 2 cm in diameter. Carbon paper,Table of Contents 47,2015 The College Board. AP Physics 1 Investigation 1,Bubble level,Optional Toy car that accelerates. The ramps are constructed from aluminum sliding door C channel and they can. be built for approximately 10 per lab station from materials that are readily. available at local home improvement stores,One 2 foot piece of 1 2 inch aluminum C channel. One 2 foot piece of 3 8 inch aluminum C channel, Two 6 inch pieces of aluminum C channel preferably 1 inch wide but scraps.

Two 6 32 1 2 inch machine screws,Two nuts to fit the machine screws. AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS,To construct four ramps. Get two 8 foot lengths of C channel one 1 2 inch wide to form the horizontal. tracks at the base of the ramps and one 3 8 inch wide to form the inclined. sections of the ramps The bottom end of the 3 8 inch piece used for the. upper angled part of each ramp fits snugly into the upper end of the 1 2 inch. horizontal track piece Also purchase one piece of wider C channel to cut into. short sections to attach for feet, Cut the inch C channel into four 2 foot lengths with a hacksaw or band saw. to make the four horizontal sections Cut the smaller 3 8 inch C channel into. four 2 foot lengths to make the four upper track pieces that will be angled. Two feet are needed for each ramp The feet can be made from larger or leftover. C channel turned upside down under the track piece so the nuts on the bottom. fit inside the channel and attach to the ramp pieces with machine screws and. nuts Drill two 3 16 inch holes in each section of the C channel 6 8 inches from. the ends Attach the feet to the wider C channel with the machine screws wing. nuts are preferable but any 6 32 nut will do It is very important that the. screws be set so that they in no way interfere with the path of the ball To make. each foot turn the short piece of 1 inch or scrap C channel upside down under. the track and attach the two together with the screws and nuts. Duct tape or a C clamp can be used to fasten the ramp and track to the table so. that repeated trials are consistent and not affected by changing the elevation. of the upper track With this design the inclined piece of C channel is movable. necessary to perform the exercise in Part III of this investigation since one end. can be elevated to different heights with small wooden blocks. Another option is to construct the tracks to be twice as long i e with a 4 foot. lower section and 4 foot upper section these are harder to store but they. provide more length on which students can take measurements Just double the. cut lengths in the directions above to accomplish this. 48 Table of Contents,2015 The College Board,1D and 2D Kinematics. Figure 1 is a good picture of what the C channel looks like how the feet are. attached and how it should be supported,AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS.

Table of Contents 49,2015 The College Board,AP Physics 1 Investigation 1. Figure 2 shows how the narrower piece of channel fits into the wider piece of. channel to provide a smooth transition from the angled ramp part of the track to. the horizontal section,AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS. Alternate equipment ideas, Use 6 foot lengths of flexible vinyl threshold which is also available from local. home improvement stores These provide an ideal track for tennis balls and are. very inexpensive The inclined ramp portion would need to be supported by a. board as it is flexible and will move if unsupported as the tennis ball rolls along. it The tennis balls will not make a mark on the carbon paper so other methods. would need to be used to determine the landing point of the projectile note It. is important that ramps are grooved so that the ball moves in a straight motion. down the ramp without veering or falling off, Commercially made ramps are also available from popular scientific equipment. companies These are however significantly more expensive and in some of. them the flat horizontal section and the inclined section are all one piece so the. angle of incline is fixed These do not offer students the flexibility of changing. the incline, If the technology is available give students photogates and the computer.

interfaces necessary to operate them Avoid giving students motion detectors. however They should be required to take simple displacement and time. measurements to make their conclusions in this activity. 50 Table of Contents,2015 The College Board,1D and 2D Kinematics. Timing and Length of Investigation,Teacher Preparation Set up 10 15 minutes. The ramps are light and can be setup in at most 10 minutes This time does not. include construction of the ramp itself which should take 20 30 minutes per. Student Investigation 70 80 minutes, Allow students time to observe the ramp play with releasing the ball and. watching it move along the track and for small group discussion in groups of. a few lab pairs so that they can determine what they will measure and how. they will measure those quantities as they approach each of the three parts to. this investigation Obtaining the data should take 10 minutes or less for each. exercise and 20 30 minutes to conduct the multiple trials required for Part III. Postlab Discussion 15 20 minutes,Total Time approximately 1 5 2 hours. AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS, There are no specific safety concerns for this lab however all general lab safety.

guidelines should be followed Sometimes if the aluminum has been cut the. elevated end can be a little sharp put a cushion on the elevated end such as. a foam ball to protect students faces,Preparation and Prelab. This activity should come after students work with motion detectors or other. motion analysis methods to learn about graphs of motion and after you have. helped them derive the equations of constant acceleration motion from the. graphs of motion Students should also be familiar with graphing techniques. and creating graphs of position vs time and velocity vs time prior to the. lab Some activities are available in Special Focus Graphical Analysis see. Supplemental Resources, It is also useful to have students understand a little bit about measuring time. with a stopwatch and the size of reaction time uncertainties You may want to. have them time one oscillation of a short pendulum and compare measurements. to compute an uncertainty Then have several students in the class time one. oscillation of a long pendulum 2 meters or more and compare measurements. They should see that the percent uncertainty of the timing of the long pendulum. is much less than the percent uncertainty for the short pendulum This is true. even though the absolute time uncertainty may be about the same Reinforce for. them the idea that in order to reduce uncertainty they need to time the motion. over longer distances whenever possible,Table of Contents 51. 2015 The College Board,AP Physics 1 Investigation 1. This experiment uses a rolling ball so the motion description is only for linear. or translational motion Since a portion of the ball Earth system s original. gravitational potential energy is converted to rotational kinetic energy of the. ball the ball s linear speed on the horizontal portion of the track will be less. than predicted by conservation of energy also the distance from the track. that the ball lands on the floor will be less than predicted Students will not. yet have studied rotational kinematics but it will not be difficult for them to. understand that part of the system s initial energy goes to rotational kinetic. energy so that the ball has less linear or translational speed on the level track. and as a consequence less range when it flies off onto the floor If students have. discussed rotational motion prior to this lab they should record this and discuss. it in their laboratory report as both an assumption and a source of uncertainty. Otherwise you might not need to even address the conservation of energy or. rotational motion the data could be revisited when rotational motion is covered. to calculate the predicted distance including the rotational energy and compare. with the experimental observations,AP PHYSICS 1 INVESTIGATIONS.

AP Physics 1 Investigation 1 Bubble level Optional Toy car that accelerates The ramps are constructed from aluminum sliding door C channel and they can be built for approximately 10 per lab station from materials that are readily available at local home improvement stores Per ramp One 2 foot piece of 1 2 inch aluminum C channel

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