Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers

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TABLE OF CONTENTS,ABSTRACT vii,CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH 1. 1 1 Introduction 1,1 2 Research Questions 1,1 3 Research Approach 2. 1 4 Literature Survey 2,1 5 Findings and Reporting 3. 1 6 Significance of the Study 3,1 7 Delimitations of the Study 3. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ON ENERGY POLICY 4,2 1 Introduction 4.
2 2 Development of an Energy Policy 6, 2 2 1 Process of Formulating the Energy Policy 6. 2 2 2 Energy Policy Objectives 7, 2 2 3 Energy Policy Development Team 8. 2 2 4 Key Energy Factors Analysis 9,CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF GLOBAL ENERGY POLICIES 13. 3 1 Introduction 13,3 2 Global General Policy Observations 16. 3 2 1 Analysis of Selected Countries Energy Policies 17. 3 3 Spain and Portugal Observations 21, CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN ENERGY POLICY 22.
4 1 Introduction 22,4 2 Process of Energy Formulation 23. 4 3 South African Key Energy Stakeholders 24,4 4 South African Energy Policy 26. Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. 4 5 South African Energy Resources 27, 4 5 1 Overview of Energy Resources 27. 4 5 2 Coal 28, 4 5 3 Oil and Gas 30, 4 5 4 Uranium 33. 4 5 5 Biomass 36, 4 5 6 Hydro 38, 4 5 7 Wind 39, 4 5 8 Solar 40.
4 6 Energy for Economic Development 42,4 7 South Africa s Environmental Management 46. 4 7 1 Emission Reduction 47, 4 7 2 Renewable Energy Development 48. 4 7 3 Energy Efficiency Management 51, 4 7 4 Schemes in the IDM Programme 53. 4 8 The Integrated Resource Plan 2010 IRP 2010 54, CHAPTER 5 ANALYSIS OF THE SOUTH AFRICAN DRIVERS OF ENERGY. POLICY 55,5 1 Introduction 55,5 2 Current Energy Factors 56.
5 2 1 Climate Change Mitigation 57, 5 2 2 Resource Impact on Energy Policy 59. 5 2 3 Energy and Economic Development 60, 5 2 4 Social Impact on Energy Policy Development 61. 5 2 5 Summary of Energy Policy Key Drivers 62,CHAPTER 6 CONCLUDING REMARKS 64. REFERENCES 65, Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. LIST OF FIGURES,Figure 1 1 Research approach 2, Figure 2 1 Energy policy development and implementation steps 5.
Figure 2 2 Energy policy formulation process 6, Figure 2 3 Key factors in the energy policy Source Researcher s own 9. Figure 3 1 World electricity generation from 1971 to 2012 13. Figure 3 2 World electricity CO2 emissions from 1973 to 2012 14. Figure 3 3 Global nameplate installed electricity capacity versus net generation 16. Figure 3 4 Spain Energy Sources 17,Figure 3 5 Spain energy mix Source WEC 2013 18. Figure 3 6 Spain forecasted energy mix 18,Figure 3 7 Portugal energy consumption 19. Figure 3 8 Portugal renewable energy resources 2004 19. Figure 3 9 Portugal cumulative wind energy capacity 21. Figure 4 1 Energy stakeholders 24,Figure 4 2 World coal producer ranking 28. Figure 4 3 World coal reserves by bituminous classification 29. Figure 4 4 South Africa gas consumption 30, Figure 4 5 Energy stakeholders highlights the importance of NERSA 35.
Figure 4 6 South Africa hydro power Infrastructure 38. Figure 4 7 South African wind resources 39, Figure 4 8 South Africa solar irradiation levels 41. Figure 4 9 Economic transformation framework energy 43. Figure 4 10 Economic transformation framework energy 44. Figure 4 11 REIPPP economic developments elements 45. Figure 4 12 Emission by sector in South Africa 47,Figure 4 13 Demand side management key players 52. Figure 5 1 South Africa Planned Energy Mix 2030 55. Figure 5 2 Challenges in South African energy sectors 56. Figure 5 3 Electricity industry CO2 emission forecast 58. Figure 5 4 Findings of South African Energy Policy Drivers 63. Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. LIST OF TABLES,Table 3 1 Coal power generation 14. Table 4 1 Global uranium production 2010 Uranium Mining in Africa Governance of. Africa Resources Programme 33,Table 4 2 Types of biofuel sources 36. Table 4 3 Summary of energy potential from biomass in South Africa 37. Table 4 4 Wind classification 39, Table 4 5 Refit Phase I and II proposed tariffs 49.
Table 4 6 Renewable energy IPP energy allocations 50. Table 4 7 IRP 2010 RBS total generating capacity in 2030 54. Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS USED, CCGT Combined Cycle Gas Turbine. CERs Certified Emission Reductions, CO2 Carbon Dioxide. CSP Concentrating Solar Power, DME Department of Minerals and Energy. DNI Direct normal irradiation, DoE Department of Energy. DMR Department of Mineral Resources, DSM Demand Side Management.
DTI Department of Trade and Industry, DWAF Department of Water Affairs. EEDSM Energy Efficiency Demand Side Management, EIA Environmental Impact Assessments. CFB Circulating Fluidised Bed, FGD Flue Gas Desulphurisation. GDP Gross Domestic Product, GHG Greenhouse gases, GJ Gigajoule. GW Gigawatt, GWh Gigawatt hours, IEA International Energy Agency.
IPAP Industry Policy Action Plan, IPPs Independent Power Producers. IRP Integrated Resource Plan, LNG Liquefied Natural Gas. LOLP Loss of load probability, LTMS Long term mitigation scenarios. MTPPP Medium Term Power Purchase Programme, MW Megawatt. MYPD Multi Year Price Determination, NERSA National Energy Regulator of South Africa .
NOx Nitrogen Oxide, Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. OCGT Open Cycle Gas Turbine, PPA Power purchase agreement. PV Photovoltaic, REFIT Renewable energy feed in tariff. SWH Solar water heaters, TJ Tera joule, TWh Tera Watt hours. WASA Wind Atlas for South Africa, Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517.
The energy landscape is experiencing major changes globally These changes. are influenced and driven by various factors such as climate change economic. drivers development and sustainability of base load energy demand This has. placed the onus on governments to optimally manage available energy resources . Have changes in the global energy landscape altered the South African energy. objectives and have they influenced the factors that drive the country s Energy. Policy This research study analyses how the South African energy policy has. developed over time and highlights the key drivers to date . The findings of research study indicates that the key drivers of South African. Energy policy are reduction in greenhouse gas emissions economic growth and. realising social development objectives Policy makers continue to face critical. choices in meeting the energy demand optimising energy resources managing. greenhouse gas emissions and realising set economic objectives pursuant to. formulating a policy that caters for the country s requirements . Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH,1 1 Introduction. In South Africa energy policy has been an important feature of the public dialogue in. recent years There have been debates and varying views around climate change . the growing power generation capacity deficit and the development of various. energy technologies to cater for the country s energy demand . As demand continues to exceed available supply and reserve margins decrease . South Africa continue to face the challenge of catering for energy demand The. South African government is exploring ways to meet the country s energy. requirements sustainably How it addresses the country s energy requirements. hinges on the direction of its energy policy ,1 2 Research Questions. The direction of South African energy policy has evolved over time from an energy. sector dominated by fossil fuel to the planned balanced power mix that promotes the. inclusion of renewable energy sources , What are the key drivers of the energy policy that have led to the transformation of. South Africa s energy sector , Have the following factors influenced the energy policy . Energy resource availability, Economic growth, Climate change.
Social development, Energy import and export options. Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. 1 3 Research Approach, The research was conducted and concluded using a three step approach as outlined. in Figure 1 1 The process entailed research design literature survey and analysis . and was concluded by reporting on the findings ,Figure 1 1 Research approach. 1 4 Literature Survey, This research study seeks to understand and identify the key drivers of the South. African energy policy To achieve this related literature was reviewed both in the. South African context and globally , The literature review included an analysis of the South African energy policy and.
other related government policies Information between policies was then correlated. to determine convergence and similarities The Integrated Resource Planning 2010. document was also analysed to determine the current policy direction from the. strategic planning perspective , Further literature survey was conducted to determine energy policy trends globally . Energy policies of selected countries were reviewed to determine global policy. direction The global trends were then assessed to determine how they have. influenced South African energy policy and to determine whether they are also key. Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. 1 5 Findings and Reporting, The third and final step was the analysis of the findings through collating the data. from the surveyed literature to answer the posed research questions The findings. are presented in this research document,1 6 Significance of the Study. South Africa as observed in the Integrated Resource Plan 2010 IRP 2010 has. embarked on a noble yet challenging mission of transforming the energy mix as it. plans to develop an additional renewable energy and nuclear power capacity of 37. GW by year 2030 , This research study assesses and seeks to understand current South African energy. policy and consequently determine its key drivers and how these drivers are likely to. shape the South African power mix in the future,1 7 Delimitations of the Study.
The study assesses the energy policy key drivers starting from the development of. the 1998 White Paper on energy Energy policy developments prior to 1998 were. not assessed , Due to the relatively small size of oil and gas in South Africa the focus is primarily on. the energy sector as it relates to power generation for the production of electricity . Energy resources that are researched are mainly coal gas hydro nuclear wind . concentrated solar power and photovoltaic of installed plant capacity of 50MW and. larger The study does not assess nor compare the various technologies and energy. resources , Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW ON ENERGY POLICY,2 1 Introduction. A government policy comprises general principles that guide a government or. legislature in the management of public affairs with key objectives for the welfare. and prosperity of the state and its people 3 Government policies represent a point. of departure for planning and ultimately determine the course of action for. implementation , Governments use policies to manage a wide range of state affairs from education . immigration land rights energy etc Policies are developed by government. departments and during development may be influenced in various ways by. stakeholders such as political parties civil groups community groups business. community and non governmental organisations , Energy resources are crucial assets and major contributors to many countries Gross.
Domestic Product GDP growth consequently they are important resources that. must be well managed by any country , Management of energy resources is normally outlined in the country s energy policy . This guiding document outlines how a country plans to manage its energy resources. to ensure that they are secured and sustainable for the beneficial use of its people. 3 Most governments place the management of energy resources and the. development of the policy under the auspices of an organisation like South Africa s. Department of Energy, Key features of an energy policy include guidelines on energy production energy. conservation regulation legislation import and export of energy international. treaties incentives to investment emissions guidelines taxation and other related. government policies that will impact on the availability and sustainability of energy. resources , Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517. The crucial first step towards the effective management of energy resources is the. development of energy policy As shown in Figure 2 1 the next step after the energy. policy is developed is to formulate the energy strategic plan This plan is based on. the direction set out in the policy and outlines how the policy will be realised . Once the strategic plan is finalised an execution plan is developed detailing how the. government and other energy stakeholders will interface to implement the developed. Policy implementation is the final step of the process entailing the construction. Analysis of the South African Energy Policy Key Drivers Webb Meko 677517 1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE RESEARCH 1 1 Introduction In South Africa energy policy has been an important feature of the public dialogue in recent years There have been debates and varying views around climate change

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