9 14 Lecture 30 Hormonal and other Influences on Brain

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Major topics,Sexual differentiation of the human hypothalamus. Emergence of female male brain differences,Determinants of sexual orientation attraction. Bird song Hormonal and other determinants, Cycles of neurogenesis and cell death in mature brain. Other relevant topics,Estrogen action during neural development. This may be mediated in part by interactions with the. neurotrophins and their receptors,Organotypic culture of the developing cerebral.
cortex and hypothalamus Relevance to sexual,differentiation. Sex steroids promote neurite growth in mes,encephalic tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive. neurons in vitro,Related topics,Thyroid hormone abnormalities result in. abnormal brain development,Normal pregnancy entails substantial changes in. thyroid function, Increased blood concentrations of T4 binding globulin.
Increased demand for iodine,Thyroid stimulation by chorionic gonadotropin. PCBs and dioxin are pollutants that cause brain,abnormalities. They are structurally similar to thyroid hormones and can. bind to the hormone receptors, They can mimic effects of thyroid hormone or decrease. normal hormone action,Colorado State Univ web site. http arbl cvmbs colostate edu hbooks pathphys endocrine thyroid thyroid. Susan Porterfield Environ Health Perspect 102 Suppl 2 125. Eric Montie Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute Ph D. thesis 2006 on marine mammals their brain development. and effects of environmental pollutants in the ocean especially. polychlorinated biphenols He has published together with. collaborators a series of papers related to this topic. Questions chapter 27, 1 What are three factors that are likely to play roles in.
the development of sex differences in the central,nervous system of mammals including humans. 2 Neuroanatomical studies of sex differences in the. human brain were initially focused on what region,More recent studies have used methods for imaging. the brain of living persons Give an example of,findings using this method. Genes hormones and environment,What determines sexual orientation. What are the apparent relative contributions of genetic. factors hormonal influences and inputs from the, external environment in the determination of sexual.
orientation,See Swaab Hofman p 264 right hand column. Strong support for genetic and hormonal,influences. Little support for social influences,Sex differences in human pathological syndromes. Studies have given very clear examples of,neurological or psychiatric disease where there. are dramatic sex differences,Why might this be,DISEASE FEMALE MALE REFS.
Anorexia Nervosa 93 7 4,Bulimia 75 25 4,Schizophrenia Following. Dutch Hunger Winter,Anxiety Disorder 67 33 6,Depression 63 37 6. Multiple Sclerosis 58 42 7,Severe Mental Retardation 38 62 8. Autism 29 71 8,Stuttering 29 71 8,Schizophrenia 27 73 8. Dyslexia 23 77 8,Sleep Apnoea 18 82 9,Gilles de la Tourette 10 90 10.
Image by MIT OpenCourseWare,Changing levels of gonadal hormones. When are sex differences in gonadal hormone levels at a. peak in human development three periods of time, When do morphological differences in the hypothalamus. See Swaab Hofman p 265 left column, Hormonal differences during 1st half of gestation again. perinatally again at puberty,Hypothalamic differences after age 4 next figure. One particular structural difference, Development and sexual differentiation of the sexually.
dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area of human,hypothalamus. Swaab Hofman TINS 95,Figure removed due to copyright restrictions. Please see course textbook or Swaab D F and M A Hofman Sexual differentiation of the human. hypothalamus in relation to gender and sexual orientation Trends in neurosciences 18 no 6 1995 264 70. Growth of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area of human hypothalamus. in males filled squares and circles and females unfilled Data from homosexual. males are shown as squares,Fig 27 1 Note log log scales. Problems with using human,postmortum brain tissues. What is a major technical factor in studying,morphological differences in the hypothalamus of.
postmortem human brains What is the Swaab and,Hofman solution. See Swaab Hofman pp 266 267, Volume of a tissue region can vary with post mortum. Tissue decay time before fixation,Nature of fixative used. Solution cell counts not easy to do,More from Swaab Hofman 1995. What is a cell group of the human hypothalamus which differs. between the sexes Is it also different in hetero and. homosexuals Answered in previous slides but additional. structures have been found see following slides, Which other nucleus of the hypothalamus may be involved in.
sexual orientation according to a study in rats How is this cell. group different in human males of different sexual orientation. following slides, There are also sex differences in CNS outside the hypothalamus. human brain were initially focused on what region More recent studies have used methods for imaging the brain of living persons Give an example of findings using this method 6 Genes hormones and environment What determines sexual orientation What are the apparent relative contributions of genetic factors hormonal influences and inputs from the external environment in the determination

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