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This project was commissioned from ETHNOS Research and. Consultancy by the Commission for Racial Equality CRE in 2005. ETHNOS Research and Consultancy,1 Holly Hill,London NW3 6QN. www ethnos co uk, The views expressed in this report are those of the authors alone. and do not necessarily represent the views of the Commission for. Racial Equality,Commission for Racial Equality,St Dunstan s House 201 211 Borough High Street. London SE1 1GZ,Published November 2005,ISBN 1 85442 573 0. 2 CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS,1 INTRODUCTION.
Background,Aims and assumptions,2 METHODOLOGY,Research design. Topic guide for focus groups,Individual tasks,The researchers. 3 WHAT IS BRITISHNESS,Britishness a common idea,National symbols. Values and attitudes,Cultural habits and behaviour. Citizenship,Achievements,4 IDENTIFICATION WITH BRITISHNESS.
Who regards themselves as British,Other sources of identification. The salience of identities,Conclusions,CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS 3. 5 THE MEANING OF SUCCESS,Achievement,Personal qualities. Measuring success,Private sphere,Public sphere,Fields of success and successful Britons. Conclusions,TABLES AND FIGURES,Table 1 Sampling, Table 2 Successful Britons by field and ethnic group.
Figure 1 What is Britishness,Figure 2 The meaning of success. APPENDICES,Appendix A Topic guide for focus groups. Appendix B Word association task,Appendix C Sentence completion task. Appendix D References,4 CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS. I AIMS OF THE RESEARCH, The Commission for Racial Equality commissioned ETHNOS to carry.
out research on the ways in which British people of different ethnic. backgrounds living in England Scotland and Wales think about. Britishness and about success,The aims of the research were to. L obtain a more detailed understanding of the process of integration. L investigate Britishness and bring society closer to answering the. question what is Britishness, L explore whether and how Britishness plays a role in integration. and what constitutes success in society and,L stimulate debate about Britishness and success. II METHODOLOGY,The research design combined three approaches. L focus groups,L word association exercises and,L sentence completion exercises.
The sample included 96 people from various ethnic backgrounds. L White English,L White Scottish,L White Welsh,L Black Caribbean. L Black African,CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS 5. L Pakistani,L Bangladeshi, The sample was equally divided between England Scotland and. Wales It included an even split of men and women Ethnic minority. participants were a mix of first second and third generation migrants. All research participants were British citizens Most groups were. moderated by researchers of similar ethnic backgrounds to those. of the participants,III FINDINGS,WHAT IS BRITISHNESS. Most of the research participants shared a common representation. of Britishness ranging over eight dimensions, L Geography Britishness was associated with the British Isles and.
with typical topographic features such as the Scottish Highlands. lochs Welsh valleys and rolling hills, L National symbols Britishness was symbolised by the Union Jack. and the royal family, L People Three different ways of thinking about the British people. emerged for some participants the British included all British. citizens that is those who hold UK passports regardless of region. or ethnicity for others the British were exclusively associated with. white English people and for others still the British included people. of very diverse ethnic origins, L Values and attitudes These included upholding human rights and. freedoms respect for the rule of law fairness tolerance and respect. for others reserve and pride generally valued by white English. participants and criticised by white Scottish and white Welsh. participants as well as those from ethnic minority backgrounds. a strong work ethic community spirit mutual help stoicism and. compassion and drunkenness hooliganism and yobbishness. 6 CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS, L Cultural habits and behaviour These included queuing watching. and supporting football cricket and rugby and consuming food. and drink such as fish and chips English breakfast Yorkshire. pudding cream teas cucumber sandwiches roast beef,Sunday lunch curries and beer.
L Citizenship For Scottish and Welsh participants and for most. participants from ethnic minority backgrounds Britishness was very. much associated with holding a UK passport This was not salient. among white English participants, L Language English was seen as a common language that unites. the British people The array of British accents in terms of regional. and class differences was also seen as typically British. L Achievements Britishness was associated with political and. historical achievements the establishment of parliamentary. democracy empire and colonialism technological and scientific. achievements the industrial revolution medical discoveries. sporting achievements the invention of many sports and pop. cultural achievements,IDENTIFICATION WITH BRITISHNESS. While the content of Britishness was shared across most groups there. were important differences in the ways in which participants personally. related to and identified with Britishness, As UK passport holders all the participants knew they were British. citizens but not everyone attached any value significance to being. British In Scotland and Wales white and ethnic minority participants. identified more strongly with each of those countries than with Britain. In England white English participants perceived themselves as English. first and as British second while ethnic minority participants perceived. themselves as British none identified as English which they saw as. meaning exclusively white people Thus the participants who identified. most strongly with Britishness were those from ethnic minority. backgrounds resident in England,CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS 7. Ethnic minority participants also drew on other sources of identification. religion for Muslims only ethnicity region country or continent of. origins and their associated cultures and race or colour for black. Caribbean and black African participants only These various identities. became more or less salient in different situations They were seen as. being compatible with Britishness,THE MEANING OF SUCCESS.
Success was a unifying concept participants from very different. backgrounds had a common view of what constitutes success. of the qualities needed to succeed and of the ways in which success. may be measured or assessed Success was equated with achievement. and as the outcome of personal qualities those who show ambition. determination drive persistence single mindedness creativity and who. work hard regardless of ethnicity religion or class can all be successful. Success may be manifested either in the private sphere in which case. it was associated with quality of life manifested through good health. financial freedom happiness and a good family life or in the public. sphere in which case it was associated with outstanding achievements. manifested through wealth fame leadership and making a positive. contribution to society Success in the public sphere was discussed in. relation to five areas sports business politics entertainment and. science and technology, There were few differences between groups in their representation of. success However ethnic minority participants appeared to place greater. value on the idea of making a positive contribution to society as a whole. rather than achieving success for oneself This was probably linked to. their minority status rather than to cultural differences per se. There were both similarities and differences among the people considered. to be successful Britons by the different groups This probably reflects. the fields in which the various ethnic groups have already demonstrated. achievements rather than cultural differences in representations of. or attitudes to success Participants from all groups were able to think. about successful Britons from ethnic groups other than their own. 8 CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS,1 INTRODUCTION. BACKGROUND, The Commission for Racial Equality CRE is a publicly funded non. governmental body set up under the Race Relations Act 1976 to tackle. racial discrimination and harassment and to promote equality of. opportunity and good race relations It works both in the public and. private sectors to encourage fair treatment and equal opportunities for. everyone regardless of race colour nationality or national or ethnic. origins It does this by, L providing information and advice to people who think they have. experienced racial discrimination or harassment, L working with public bodies businesses and other organisations to.
promote policies and practices that will help ensure equal treatment. L running campaigns to raise awareness of race issues and to encourage. organisations and individuals to play their part in creating a just. society and, L making sure new laws take full account of the Race Relations Act. and the protection it gives from discrimination, The CRE commissioned ETHNOS to carry out research on various. dimensions of the concept of Britishness with a range of British people. from different ethnic backgrounds living in England Scotland and. Wales ETHNOS was also asked to explore the meaning of success. and whether the notion of successful Britons has any relevance for. different groups,CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS 9. AIMS AND ASSUMPTIONS, The aims of the research as identified in the tender brief were to. L gain a more detailed understanding of the integration process. L investigate Britishness and bring society closer to answering the. question what is Britishness, L explore whether and how Britishness plays a role in integration and.
ideas about success in society and,L stimulate debate about Britishness and success. This research should make an important contribution to understanding. whether and how Britain s multicultural society can be truly integrated. cohesive and successful What values and loyalties if any must be. shared by communities and individuals in all parts of Britain How. should differences and incompatible values between different. communities be handled How is a balance to be struck between the. need to treat people equally the need to treat people differently and. the need to maintain shared values and social cohesion The research. should also contribute to elucidating the processes through which the. British national story and its attendant notion of Britishness gets told. maintained challenged and changed by different groups. Collective thinking about these issues has become necessary against a. background of postwar migration devolution globalisation the end of. empire moral and cultural pluralism and closer association with. Europe It has been given added relevance and urgency in the light of. the recent terrorist attacks in the UK These have brought to the fore. and exacerbated any perceived differences between British Muslims. on the one hand and people of white British and non Muslim ethnic. minority backgrounds on the other The attacks have been interpreted. by many people regardless of their ethnic or religious backgrounds as. evidence that at least some sections of the British Muslim population. have loyalties that lie beyond the British nation state and are linked to a. worldwide Islamic network whose interests may be at odds with those. 10 CITIZENSHIP AND BELONGING WHAT IS BRITISHNESS, of Britain There is a danger that such perceptions could undermine the. hard won achievements of British society with respect to multiculturalism. and integration Such issues deserve careful and systematic exploration. A number of theoretical assumptions underpin the research Critically. the study is based on the view that Britain is not only a territorial and. political entity but also an imagined community Anderson 2000 It is. precisely in the notion of Britishness as a psychologically represented. social system that this research is interested Thus being British is. something which may or may not be relevant to people independently. of their nationality and which may be mobilised in some situations but. not in others From this perspective as the Parekh Report Runnymede. Trust 2000 identified the fundamental questions about the national. story are what is Britain s understanding of itself How are the histories. of England Scotland and Wales understood by their people What do. the separate countries stand for and what does Britain as a whole stand. for Of what may citizens be justly proud What should be preserved. what jettisoned what revised or reworked How can everyone find. recognition and develop a sense of belonging in Britain Do people. believe it is at all important to share a common British value system. To answer these questions we start with the assumption that. Britishness like any other concept denoting a social identity is very. much a fluid concept which can be associated with a range of different. and the royal family backgrounds had a common view of what constitutes success of the qualities needed to succeed and of the ways in which success may be measured or assessed Success was equated with achievement and as the outcome of personal qualities those who show ambition determination drive persistence single mindedness creativity and who work hard regardless of ethnicity

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